Biographies, Annotations and Other Information

The following brief Biographies and Annotations including additional information such as relevant locations, places, buildings etc were compiled by Reg Butler (Hahndorf Historian) over many years.

Please Note (disclaimer):

These Lists were created basically 'as is' from Reg Butler's unpublished computer working files as at c2014. 

Although it is certain that when compiling such data Reg took all available means to ensure accuracy, it is emphasized that not all of the data has been verified.  As a result. the Lists created may be incomplete, not state sources used, and might contain errors.  It is therefore left to the reader to determine the validity of all such data.

Under no circumstances will Reg Butler correspond about or discuss any of the material or data included in any pages containing information extracted from his computer files.
Where additional information or corrections are known, please login and make such alterations/additions (retaining the original information) stating your User Name along with any supporting sources.

The Biographies are divided into alphabetical sections which can be accessed by clicking on the appropriate links below:

Biographies:   [ A to C ]     [ D to F ]     [ G to J ]     [ K to M ]     [ N to R ]     [ S to Z ]     [ Hahndorf ]

Annotations:   [ Biographies ]     [ People and Places ]     [ Adelaide Hills ]

Annotations of People and Places

BANKHEAD, John (c1808-1882). - London-born John Bankhead emigrated aboard the Navarino to SA, with his wife, Eliza, and one child.

BATES, George (1800-1895). - London-born George Bates left his post as a seaman aboard the Nereus in 1824, when the vessel arrived at Kangaroo Island during a sealing expedition from Sydney.  For the next few years, he made the island his base for sealing and whaling (occasionally also going to Encounter Bay for the bones of stranded whales)

BENDIGO, Vic. - Originally called Bendigo Creek, as part of Ravenswood, an extensive sheep station.  Growth as a town began in September 1851 with the discovery of alluvial gold in many nearby creeks.  Within twenty years, the settlement had been declared a city, boasting wide streets and substantial buildings.  Many SA miners worked at Mt Alexander, one of the many gold diggings in the neighbourhood.  The gold came back to SA within the safety of the well-known gold escort, made up of SA police.

BLYTH, Arthur (1823-1891). - Birmingham-born Arthur arrived in SA with his parents aboard the Ariadne in 1839.  His father, William, gained influence as a JP and a member of the first Adelaide City Council in 1840.  Arthur Blyth worked industriously as a Hindley St ironmonger and took on extensive pastoral interests.  In time, he became President of the Adelaide Chamber of Commerce, a Director of the SA Company and the National Bank of Australasia.  In 1857, as a very conservative member for Gumeracha, Blyth was elected to the first responsible SA Parliament.  He rose to become a Cabinet minister, and also Premier several times during the early 1870s.  From 1877 until his death, A Blyth was SA's Agent-General in London.

BORROW, Richard (1790-1862). - Born at Liskeard, Cornwall, England.  To SA 1839 Prince Regent, with his wife and young family.  Upon arrival, he went into business with James Goodiar, a fellow passenger.  The troubled course of their contracting partnership filled many Supreme Court files intermittently during the 1840s, particularly over payment suits against the Government for building the Adelaide Gaol.

BRAY, Thomas (c1816-1855). - A native of Gwennap, Cornwall, England, Thomas Bray was in SA by 1840.  He opened a bootmaker’s shop in Hindley St, Adelaide, at that time the city’s main business street.  In November 1840, Bray identified for the police a pair of boots as belonging to the cattle thief Joseph Stagg, who also murdered his colleague in crime, John Gofton.  Stagg bought a new pair of boots from Thomas Bray the morning after the murder had occurred.  Following a number of business reverses, T Bray became a wealthy landowner with many Adelaide properties out for rent.

BROWNE, Dr William (1815-1894). - A native of Ilford, Wilts, England, Browne came in the Buckinghamshire to SA during 1839, when he lived in a huge gum tree at Lyndoch.  Farming gave way to wide-ranging pastoral interests with his brother, John. both men had graduated from Edinburgh University as doctors, but never practised.  The Brownes opened up magnificent sheep stations in the South-East, the North and on Eyre Peninsula.  Enviable profits eventually enabled the brothers to retire to England in great comfort.  Their sister, Anna, married Joseph Gilbert of Pewsey Vale, near Lyndoch.

BUCKS HEAD HOTEL, Adelaide. - This hotel, on the corner of Gray St and North Tce, opened in 1848 as the Dolphin. George Gandy was the first publican.  The business changed names a year later under its second landlord, James Hill.  Trade continued until the hotel closed in 1964.

BUFFALO, The. - A three-mast ship built in Calcutta in 1813 and called the Hindostan.  The Royal Navy bought this vessel in the same year and re-named it the Buffalo, for use as a storeship/timber carrier.  Captain Hindmarsh had the boat fitted out at Portsmouth for the long voyage to South Australia in 1836.  The Buffalo came again to Australia in 1840 with convicts for Hobart Town.  Soon afterwards, the ship took British troops to New Zealand, but unfortunately was wrecked off the South Island while loaded with kauri spars bound for England.  The wreckage is still seen occasionally when sea conditions allow.

BUFFALO ROW, Adelaide. - Many of the passengers who arrived in SA on HMS Buffalo in late 1836 pitched their tents together in a row along the Torrens River, near the site of the later Adelaide Gaol.  Coromandel Row, for the Coromandel passengers, was erected a little east of this area.

CHAPMAN, William (c1831-1895). - Surrey-born William Chapman arrived in SA 1849 Ascendant, with his parents.  After a short time on the new family farm at Echunga, William left for the Victorian gold fields.  Upon his return, he continued panning for gold around Echunga.  In August 1852, William found paying gold and the Government declared a field amidst great excitement.  684 miners had taken out a 30s licence within the next couple of months.  W Chapman made a trip to the New Zealand gold fields in 1855, but upon his return to SA, he established a grain and seed store in Mt Barker.  He belonged to the Mt Barker Agricultural & Horticultural Society and was the first librarian of the Mt Barker Institute.

COCK, Robert (c1801-1871). - A native of Fifeshire, Scotland, Robert emigrated to SA with his wife and six children aboard the Buffalo in 1836.  He was soon hard at work at his professions of carpenter and millwright.  R Cock built a permanent home, which he turned into a store and land saleroom, and continued to live with his family in the temporary structure.  Besides acting as Government auctioneer, Cock conducted his own agency and did much exploration in the Adelaide Hills to find suitable stock and agricultural land - this information he sold.  R Cock and companions discovered Cox Creek (site of modern Bridgewater), which in corrupted form commemorates him, and the Hindmarsh River (modern Strathalbyn); in late December 1837, the men became the second group of Europeans to climb Mt Barker.  Also during 1837, Cock explored Yorke Peninsula and country around Pt Lincoln.  For some years, Cock farmed on Onkaparinga River-side property (Mt Annan) between Balhannah and Oakbank, before finally shifting to Mt Gambier, where he died.

COLONIAL CAMP, Adelaide. - Evidently a collective name for the various groups of government and residential tents beside the Torrens River and North Tce, in the earliest colonial years.

CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL, North Tce, Adelaide. - The first Congregational minister, the Rev’d TQ Stow, arrived in SA on the Hartley in October 1837.  Initially, he lived in a tent by the Torrens River and here the first Congregational service was held. Governor Hindmarsh sat on a box for the service.  During 1838, Mr Stow organised a church built out of pine logs on North Terrace, a little to the west of Morphett Street.  He journeyed to the Reedbeds (the mouth of the Torrens River near Glenelg) to cut reeds to thatch the roof.

COROMANDEL ROW. - See Buffalo Row.

CRAFER, David (c1796-1842). - Born at Buxton, nr Norwich, Norfolk, EnglaEMIGRATION SQUAREnd.  Shortly before emigrating to SA aboard the Lord Goderich in 1838,  Crafer married Mary Ann Leggatt at East Dereham, Norfolk. During March 1839, he opened the Sawyers Arms at what is now Crafers in the Adelaide Hills to serve the scattered numbers of farmers and woodcutters living in the neighbourhood.  Only days afterwards, the Germans passed by to establish Hahndorf, the first township in the ranges.  From late 1840, David called his business the Norfolk Arms Hotel, in honour of his native county.  Crafer gave up his inn in April 1841 and took on the licence of the South Australian Hotel in Hindley St for some months.  David died at Brighton, after a lingering illness.  He left no sons and therefore the name of Crafer no longer kept going in the colony.

CRAFERS, David - Crafer opened his hotel, the Sawyer’s Arms, beside the bush track later known as the Mount Barker Road in March 1839.  The public house soon became known familiarly as Crafer’s place.  Two sub-divisions, Crafers Park and Crafers Summit, were laid out in 1880 by Richard Searle and Edward Ashwin, and RA Patterson respectively.

DEBNEY, George (c1817-1897). - Born in Whitechapel, London, England, George emigrated with his parents to SA in 1838 Lloyds.  At first a farmer at the Reedbeds, George had the good fortune to invest wisely in the new Burra copper mine and used his profits to open a furniture factory on the site of the present-day Adelaide Arcade.  Respected for his seductive sofas and other works, G Debney won the contract to furnish the new Legislative Council Chambers in North Terrace in 1855.  Unfortunately, a disastrous fire destroyed the factory and its contents; George had to start again quickly to re-do the order.  Without incident, he made the furniture for the Duke of Edinburgh’s Government House bedroom during the 1867 Royal visit.  G Debney also conducted many society funerals in his capacity as an undertaker, performed property valuations, became Chairman of the Burnside Council and acted as trustee for many deceased estates.  Further reverses caused him to sell his business in 1876-1877 to Patrick Gay (hence Gay’s Arcade); author and politician Simpson Newland bought the Debney house at Burnside and built the well-known Undelcarra homestead.  More tragedy pursued George - his wife and daughter drowned when their rowing boat overturned in the sea at Glenelg during 1860.  G Debney died more or less in poverty, after a life of dramatic changes of fortunes.

DRAPER, Ambrose. - To SA 1837 Lady Emma, with wife Rose; a son, Richard, born after arrival.  Ambrose became a bootmaker in Hindley St, Adelaide, in the late 1830s.  It is likely that he left SA fairly soon again, as the 1841 Census, the 1840s Directories and other records make no reference to him.

ECHUNGA. - In 1849, wealthy Quaker businessman Jacob Hagen laid out Echunga in the Hundred of Kuitpo, a few kilometres west of Hahndorf.  Three years later, the quiet agricultural hamlet became the scene of South Australia’s earliest gold rush, when the population grew fast.  In 1854, the Hagens returned to England , but retained much property at Echunga, which they left in the care of their land steward, George Sanders.  Echunga’s Hagen Arms Hotel commemorates the efforts of the township’s founder.

ELPHINSTONE, Charles. - Born Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.  To SA by 1839, when he married the widow Elizabeth Nicholls, nee Elsherton.  Listed variously as a builder and carpenter in Hindley St, Adelaide, until 1844.

EMIGRATION AGENT. - A recent graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge, John Hutt became the SA Company’s Superintendent of Emigration to SA between 1836-1838, at £250 a year.  Using sub-agents, as well as his own contacts, Hutt encouraged a wide range of people to emigrate to the new colony.  At one stage, it appeared likely that J Hutt would succeed Hindmarsh as the second Governor of SA.  After this disappointment, Hutt apparently lost much interest in the project, although he was a member of a 1849 syndicate which hoped to build a railway line in the province.

EMIGRATION SQUARE, Adelaide. - A large area of land on West Tce, in the vicinity of the present-day Adelaide High School, where rows of temporary wooden cottages containing two rooms each had been erected.  Newly-arrived colonists could rent a single room divided by a three-quarter wall partition into two areas.  Homes were primitive enough to encourage people to move out as soon as possible.  Aborigines made quite a living by cutting up trees for firewood for Emigration Square inhabitants.  Water came up in water-carts from the Torrens River.

EXCHANGE HOTEL, Adelaide. - Samuel Payne, the founder of Payneham, established the hotel on his own Town Acre in 1839 as the Australian Arms, in Hindley St.  Following several more name changes, the inn became the Exchange Hotel from 1854, under which name the hotel still trades.  Exploiting its central position in what was then the city’s central business district, successive enterprising landlords built up a large patronage.  A meeting of corn factors in the hotel dining room during 1843 resulted in the development of Ridley’s stripper to aid SAs infant wheat industry.  In 1899, leading Adelaide land agent Charles Lyons died in the arms of his chemist and a company investor, after suffering heart failure while enjoying a whiskey and peppermint pick-me-up in the Exchange Hotel front bar.

FALMOUTH, England. - A sea port at the mouth of the Fal River in southern Cornwall.  Two castles guard the entrance to a spacious harbour.  Few emigrant boats departed for SA from this port.  The town became famous as the departure point for packet-ships leaving Britain with foreign mail.  A special mail coach plied reguarly along a fast mail-road between London and Falmouth to carry HM Mails to and from the wharf-side.  Favourable winds and currents often made Falmouth an easier place than Plymouth and Portsmouth to use as a port.

FERGUSON, William (1809-1892). - Born in Roxburghshire, Scotland, W Ferguson emigrated to SA 1836 Buffalo, with his wife of only a few months.  On arrival, William went into various business partnerships with fellow passenger Robert Cock.  Besides building the province’s first auction room, the men also laid out the Magill Estate, where W Ferguson took charge of the farming aspects.  Unfortunately, the Fergusons lost their property in the 1841 economic crash, and retired to a farm at Myrtle Bank, with some of the stock which well-wishers bought for the family at the mortgage sale.  William saw his children marry into prosperous pastoral families - Cudmores, Hawkers, Mortlocks, AB Murray, Tennants - and enjoyed a comfortable old age.

FINNISS, Boyle (1807-1893). - Following a youthful career in the British Army, BT Finniss emigrated to SA aboard the Cygnet in 1836, as a surveyor’s assistant to Col W Light.  Following appointment as Deputy Surveyor-General in 1840, Boyle took an increasing interest in politics.  Appointed first to the SA Legislative Council during 1848, BT Finniss later held other Government posts until he became the colony’s first Premier in 1857.  Finniss became Government Resident of the Northern Territory during the 1860s.  One of the most revered amongst early SA colonists, BT Finniss found himself increasingly called upon for help and advice on a wide range of issues.  He wrote widely on a number of topics, opinions and memoirs which still hold people’s attention.  Numbers of SA physical features are named after Finniss.

FIRST CREEK. - Rises on the Adelaide Hills slopes above Waterfall Gully and then flows north-west into the Torrens River, a little north of the Zoological Gardens in the North Parklands.  First Creek is one of a series of Torrens tributaries within the Adelaide metropolitan area.  In colonial times, orchards and market gardens crowded along the banks of First Creek, particularly below the Waterfall Gully reserve at the river’s source.

FISHER, James Hurtle (1790-1875). - A native of Little Bowden, Northants, England, JH Fisher and his mostly adult family emigrated aboard the Buffalo in 1836, to SA.  James soon became a familiar figure around Adelaide, riding his magnificent steed, Black Jack.  Appointed Resident Commissioner for the SA Company, Fisher had his office in a North Terrace hut, which also served as the Fisher family home.  During 1837, he accompanied his nearest neighbour, Surveyor-General Light, in the first inland expedition organised in SA - the men reached the spot where Willunga now is before turning back to Adelaide (the party had hopes of reaching Encounter Bay).  As a lawyer, JH Fisher also represented many colonists in their court appearances.  A great sportsman, he was a popular person and after becoming the first Mayor of Adelaide, was re-elected five times to that position.  JH Fisher became a nominated member of the first Legislative Council and he also belonged to the committee which helped name Adelaide’s streets and squares (hence Hurtle Square). Queen Victoria honoured him with a knighthood in 1860.

FOREST RANGE. - An ill-defined region of prosperous orchards and other farmland south-west of Lobethal.  Formerly covered with stringybark forest, Forest Range was home to an assortment of transitory timber-cutters and stockholders in early colonial times, varied with gold miners in the mid-1850s.  By the early 1890s, the name Forest Range gradually superseded other names commonly applied to the area.

GALATEA HOTEL, Adelaide. - Opened in Hindley St, as the Star Inn, during 1845, it changed its name to the Galatea in 1867, to honour the ship which brought Australia’s first royal visitor, the Duke of Edinburgh, to SA.  The name Galatea remained until 1907, when the inn became the Kalgoorlie.  Following many more name changes, it has been known as the Rio International since 1984.  The Galatea had an excellent concert room for popular community singing, where only songs of a strictly moral character were allowed.

GILES, William (1791-1862). - Born in Great Staughton, Hunts, England, William emigrated to SA aboard the Hartley, with his second wife and large family.  The Giles lived on Kangaroo Island for a time, then moved to the mainland, where Governor Hindmarsh appointed W Giles a Stipendiary Magistrate, a terror to evil doers and a praise of them that do well.  In 1841, William succeeded D McLaren as a very competent Resident Manager of the SA Company.  During 1851, W Giles became member for Yatala in the Legislative Council and made a vital contribution in drawing up the new constitution for SA responsible government in 1857.  Sincere Congregationalist that he was, Giles campaigned strongly against state aid to any religious denominations.  A large concourse of distinguished colonists attended his funeral in the Clayton Congregational Chapel, at Kensington; the press remarked that even the Governor’s carriage was there, although having arrived in the colony only several months previously, Governor Daly did not know Giles personally.

GLEESON, John (c1798-1840). - A native of Nenagh, Co Tipperary, Ireland, J Gleeson and his family emigrated to Calcutta, India, and then moved to SA aboard the Emerald in 1838.  With his brother, Edward, he established a stock agency on their farm, Gleeville, at Beaumont, using progeny brought out with them from India.  John was also a liberal supporter of Trinity Church, North Tce.  The Gleesons shifted to a home on East Tce, where John, usually in somewhat indifferent health, died.

GLEESONS HILL, Beaumont. - Another name for the Beaumont Spur immediately behind Gleeville, the farm of the Gleeson brothers at Beaumont.  Until the Glen Osmond road opened, this was the favoured route to the Stringybark Forest and the Mt Barker District.

GLEN OSMOND ROAD. - Surveyor-General Light made no provision for a direct road between Adelaide and the Glen Osmond foothills in his original survey of farming sections.  Travellers bound for the Mt Barker District crossed private land to reach the Mt Lofty Ranges spurs.  During 1839, a powerful lobby of farmers, mining companies and pastoralists gained Governor Gawler’s support for a public road to be built.  However, Gawler’s recall and economic recession delayed construction until 1841.  Governor Grey established the Great Eastern Road Trust, which had the responsibility of building the road over land which the Government took from the various owners, with a promise of post and rail fencing at the expense of the public purse.  The Trust built a toll gate at Glen Osmond to collect money from road users, who had to pay a heavy fine if caught going by any other route.  This private company completed the road to Glen Osmond, but lacked the resources to extend the route to present-day Crafers.  In 1844, the Government assumed control, and, using a pool of unemployed labourers, completed the job in the next year.  Toll collection stopped during 1847; the fees failed to raise enough money to pay construction expenses and the public declared them unfair, as no other road had them.

GOODIAR, James (c1813-1887). - Born at Chichester, Sussex, England.  To SA 1839 Lord Goderich.  On arrival, James formed a contracting partnership with Richard Borrow, another passenger.  Goodiar spent his life in SA variously as a building contractor, surveyor and timber merchant.  He eventually settled at Stirling North, near Pt Augusta, where he became a JP.

GOODWOOD PARK. - The SA Company established the Village of Goodwood c1839-1840.  Businessman Arthur Hardy bought two adjoining sections in 1841.  Between 1842-1849, he leased this land to Borrow & Goodiar, who called the property Goodwood Farm.  In 1849, Hardy began the business of sub-dividing the area under the name of Goodwood Park.

GORDON, JM. - Practised as an architect in Gouger St, Adelaide, during 1841-1842.  Possibly James Montgomery Gordon (1810-1842), born Edinburgh, Scotland.  Arrived SA 1840 Augustus.

GRAY STREET, Adelaide. - Today, this street links North Tce through to Grote St, the first important north-south street after leaving West Tce.  Colonist William Gray had the initial portion (from North Tce to Currie St) constructed, so that he could develop his three adjacent Town Acres.  Before Colonel Light laid out Adelaide, W Gray helped the surveyor burn off the high kangaroo grass which covered the site.  A thoughtful person, amongst other initiatives, Gray suggested that the Royal Adelaide Show be held in September, instead of February.

GREENHILL ROAD, Adelaide. - A major road leading directly from the Greenhill spur in the Mt Lofty Ranges foothills, through some of suburban Adelaide’s most reputable real estate, to Anzac Highway.  Formerly, the carriage-way ended at Victoria Ave (now portion of Fullarton Rd).

GUMERACHA. - During 1839, WB Randell settled by a fine Torrens River waterhole, Umeracha, in Peramangk Aboriginal language.  At first in the employ of the SA Company, which owned most of the best land in the neighbourhood, he bought property of his own.  In 1860, Randell set aside portion of the estate on which to lay out a township.  Gumeracha became an important link in the Torrens Valley stage coach run between Adelaide and Mt Pleasant.

GUMERACHA DISTRICT. - Taking Gumeracha township as the central point, the District has traditionally taken in all the area between Kenton Valley and Forreston (formerly North Gumeracha), some 13 km in length, together with varying widths, including along the Torrens River.

HACK, John B (1805-1884). - Born in Chichester, Sussex, England, JB Hack emigrated to SA 1837 Isabella, with his wife and young family.  A person of vision, Hack suffered great misfortunes with his ventures, including a cattle station on the Adelaide Plains, the Three Brothers Survey (Echunga and surrounds) in the Adelaide Hills and many choice Adelaide Town Acres.  He ended his working life as accountant for the SA Railways Goods Department, after taking part in some of the most significant events in colonial SA.

HAHNDORF. - Captain DM Hahn negotiated with the three landowners in January 1839 to obtain the site of the present township of Hahndorf for his Zebra passengers to settle.  They named their new home after the captain who had done so much for them.  Between 1918-1935, Hahndorf was known as Ambleside.

HALLETT, John (1804-1868). - A native of Essex, England, J Hallett emigrated SA 1836 Africaine, with his wife and several young sons.  For a few years, Hallett engaged in commercial speculations with the ship’s captain, John Duff, who also remained in SA.  Then, J Hallett turned with varying fortunes to the pastoral and mining industries.  During 1837, he discovered Hallett Cove, while searching for a lost flock of sheep.  The township of Hallett in SAs north is situated on Hallett’s sheep station, Willogoleechee.  From 1857-1862, John was one of the Members for Sturt in the new House of Assembly.

HAMLYN, William. - Identity uncertain.  As yet, no records reveal a W Hamlyn as having emigrated to SA by the late 1830s.

HANSON, Sir Richard (1805-1876). - From London, England, Richard Hanson arrived SA 1846 from New Zealand.  As a young attorney, he had played a leading part in England for SA to be established.  Besides entering the Legislative Council in 1851, Hanson became the Government’s chief legal advisor and had the charge of preparing the colony’s first Education Act and the District Councils Act.  During 1862, R Hanson became Chief Justice and received a knighthood in 1869.  At one stage, he was Acting-Governor, and also wrote many books and pamphlets.  Even in his lifetime, people recognised Sir Richard as one of the wisest and most able members of the community.  The Hanson family mansion, Woodhouse, at Stirling, is now a Scout campsite.

HARDEMAN, Thomas (c1829-1905). Probably a native of Worcestershire, England.  To SA 1838 Lady Goderich. Eldest son of Richard Hardeman (who died 1868), a sawyer, splitter and market gardener in the New Tiers during the 1840s, before he took up land at Echunga.  Until his 1864 marriage, Thomas helped on the family property, besides following his goldmining exploits.  His wife, Mary, nee Washington, was the eldest daughter of William Washington, of Dusky Farm, Richmond.  Convinced Wesleyan Methodists, the Hardemans lived for the rest of their lives at Milner St, Hilton, where Thomas was a carpenter.  Almost invariably, the colonial press rendered the family surname as Hardiman.  Hardeman, Thomas d 4/5/1905

HEARD, Henry. - Possibly Henry Heard, a Currie St grocer, who later farmed at Noarlunga.

HILTON. - Brother of Penny Postage pioneer Rowland Hill, criminal law reformer Matthew Hill bought Section 49, Hundred of Adelaide, as an absentee owner in 1839.  While MP for Hull, he had been responsible for conducting the SA Foundation Bill through the House of Commons in 1834.  c1849, Hill’s local attorney, GM Stephen, laid out the village of Hilton (perhaps to be Hillton?), before returning to England himself.

HINDLEY STREET, Adelaide. - Charles Hindley was a very religious member of the House of Commons.  He belonged to the SA Society, a powerful lobby group which kept official support going for South Australia during the late 1830s and early 1840s.  For many years, Hindley St was Adelaide’s principal commercial area.

HOLDFAST BAY. - Surveyor-General W Light gave Glenelg’s harbour this name, after his survey ship, Rapid, had safely ridden out two days of storm there in September 1836.

HOUGHTON. - Land agent and surveyor John Richardson laid out the village of Houghton on Section 5519, Hundred of Yatala, in 1841.  The township quickly became an important staging post on the Torrens Valley road to Gumeracha, Blumberg and Mt Pleasant.

HUTT, John. - Family distinguished in politics and the armed services.  Member of the National Colonisation Society, which sought to send paupers to the colonies with due care for their welfare.  A graduate from Trinity College, Cambridge in the early 1830s, some of whose advanced lecturers attracted recruits from amongst the students to Wakefield’s theories and the NCS. Superintendent of Emigration between 1836-1838 at £250.  His brother, William, became one of the founding Colonial Commissioners in 1834.  Emigrants’ names kept in a book, which Hutt took with him when he left office.  The SA Company wanted John Hutt to succeed Hindmarsh as Governor.  His brother William also harboured ambitions.  Became part of a company in 1849 to build a railway line from Pt Adelaide to Kooringa.

KANGAROO ISLAND. - Captain Matthew Flinders and his crew replenished their fresh meat supply from kangaroos they killed after going ashore during February 1802.  Flinders named the spot Kangaroo Island on the 22nd, in gratitude.  The haunt of sealers and whalers for some years soon afterwards, Kangaroo Island became the first area for official permanent European settlement in 1836.  For immigrants arriving by sea, a sight of Cape Borda signalled almost the end of their long voyage.

LEIGH STREET, Adelaide. - During 1840, William Leigh, of Little Aston (south-west of Lichfield), Staffordshire, presented two Adelaide Town Acres for the use of the Church of England. T he street adjoining these properties became known as Leigh St, in consequence.  Today, the Anglican Church still owns this valuable estate, known as the Leigh Trust.

LIGHT, Colonel William (1784-1839). - Born in Penang,  W Light later served with distinction for the British army in Spain during the Napoleonic Wars.  While on later military naval duty in Egypt, Light met John Hindmarsh, who became the first Governor of South Australia.  William went with him as the colony’s first Surveyor-General.  After laying out Adelaide and surveying much of the surrounding countryside, Light resigned his post in 1837, upon a severe quarrel with the Colonial Commissioners.  W Light continued in private surveying practice until his death of consumption in 1839, a few months after N Hailes arrived from England.

LORD GODERICH. - A three mast ship of 400 tons, built by Dikes & Gibson 1828 Kingston upon Hull, Lincs, England.  During mid-October 1837, the vessel departed Gravesend, London, with general cargo and 126 passengers bound for Pt Adelaide.  During the voyage, a drunk cabin passenger died during a meal.  As a result, an extremely bitter feud broke out between others of the cabin passengers and Captain Andrew Smith.  The master sailed to Brazil, where the British Consul in Rio (Mr Hesketh) appointed Stephen Whettem as superintendent of the emigrants in place of EC Gwynne (the Register wrongly reported that the captain had been replaced).  Unfortunately, the Lord Goderich remained in Pt Adelaide for several months longer than necessary because of delays in unloading cargo.  Local newspapers featured advertisements from both parties, who continued to feud until the ship left for Hobart in July 1838.  The Lord Goderich returned to Australia with a complement of convicts during 1841.

LORD RODERICH. - T Hardemann wrongly recalled the name of the vessel on which he came to SA.  See LORD GODERICH.

LUNATIC ASYLUM, Parkside. - Until 1846, mentally ill people had treatment at the Adelaide Gaol.  Then, the Government opened a hospital facing Greenhill Rd, which removed to North Tce during 1852.  Overcrowding caused new premises to open in 1870 at Parkside.  Formerly behind a high stone wall, these buildings are still used in conjunction with other sites in the metropolitan area.  Today, the Lunatic Asylum is known as the Glenside Mental Hospital.

McFARLANE, Duncan (1793-1856). - Scottish-born McFarlane arrived NSW 1824 as a sailor, and then began squatting in the mountains near present-day Canberra.  Duncan came to SA 1838 with his friend, William Dutton, on the brig Parland.  McFarlane joined Dutton and Dutton’s father-in-law, John Finnis, in taking out the Mt Barker Special Survey during January 1839, the first such land sale in the colony.  The men had brought with them substantial loans from a wealthy Sydney merchant, Thomas Walker, apparently to snap up property in such a fashion should it become available.  McFarlane established a station, using his own stock brought over by sea from NSW.  Dependable Scottish shepherds came to live in a row of stone huts almost upon the later Mt Barker township, which Duncan and his partners laid out on part of McFarlane’s sheep run during 1840.  A sales office opened next to the homestead.  Soon, scab and closer settlement made the area unsuitable for sheep and Duncan shifted his pastoral interests to the South-East.  He also took up shares in the Glen Osmond silver-lead mines.  In old age, D McFarlane retired to his home at Glen Osmond.  He was a JP and presided fairly over trials.

McGEE, Michael. - About 10pm on the night of 27 March 1838, two armed men bailed up SA's Sheriff, Samuel Smart, as he sat working at his desk at home.  Later, S Smart identified Michael McGee, who fired a musket and grazed Smart’s cheek.  Some 500 people watched the long murder trial, the first in the colony.  The execution took place from a gum tree in the North Parklands, in front of the Colonial Store, on 2 May 1838.  After McGee had admitted to the crowd how wicked he was, the signal was given, and the cart drove off.  He struggled a good deal...the executioner having performed his part in rather a slovenly manner ...  Some of the mounted police and marines were present.

MILLER,  - the sly-grog seller on Gleesons Hill.  Unfortunately, not enough evidence is yet available to identify him.

MONCK, John (c1814-1880). - J Monck arrived SA 1836 Buffalo with Governor Hindmarsh.  Monck became parish clerk to the Colonial Chaplain, the Rev’d CB Howard, who additionally had him appointed sexton of Adelaide’s new West Tce Cemetery, when it opened during 1837.  Quickly, John supported Anglican claims to special privileges concerning the site and also made himself unpopular for refusing to make a proper plan of the area or record leases.  When the unhelpful sexton refused to become more co-operative over other improvements following an 1850s Parliamentary Select Committee, public outrage forced him to resign.  For the rest of his life, J Monck conducted a general agency in Gouger St, Adelaide.  A keen Lodge member, over 300 Freemasons and Oddfellows decked out in regalia to honour him at his funeral in the cemetery he so long was responsible for.

MONTEFIORE HILL, North Adelaide. - The high point of the suburb, with magnificent views over the North Parklands to South Adelaide.  John McDouall Stuart’s 1861 inland expedition left from Montefiore Hill, and a huge crowd of working class people held a mass meeting there during 1892 to discuss the Broken Hill miners’ strike.  Jacob Montefiore (1801-1895), the wealthy City of London Jew who gave his name to the hill, was one of the original SA Colonisation Commissioners appointed in 1835.  For a period in the 1840s-1850s, he lived in Adelaide, conducting a mercantile warehouse with other members of his family in King William St.

MORPHETT, John (1809-1892). - London-born J Morphett, a land agent, arrived SA 1836 Cygnet, as a favour for having sold so many SA preliminary land orders amongst his family’s wealthy British friends.  He continued this record in the province (besides helping to survey Adelaide) and married the daughter of JH Fisher, the Resident Commissioner.  During 1837, Morphett belonged to European-led expeditions which discovered the Torrens River and first climbed Mt Barker.  In time, John Morphett was keen to establish a colonial aristocracy.  He joined the SA Parliament and held many high offices over the years.  Morphett made his property, Cummins, near Glenelg, into a fine estate.

MOUNT BARKER DISTRICT. - For South Australian colonists in the 1840s, the old Mt Barker District stretched from approximately Macclesfield and Meadows in the south to Mt Torrens in the north.  The District’s eastern borders were the Bremer-Scott Creek headwaters, while the New Tiers directly across the Onkaparinga River marked the boundary to the west.  Mt Barker township lay strategically in the centre of the region.  Captain Collett Barker was the first European to make a recognised sighting of the Mt Barker summit, during his ill-fated coastal journey to the Murray mouth in April 1831, when Aborigines speared him to death.

NEALES, John Bentham (1806-1873). - Reared by the influential political philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, JB Neales emigrated to SA aboard the Eden, in 1838.  Mixing from the first in powerbroking circles, JB Neales became involved in many business interests, principally in banking, mining and real estate.  Between 1851-1870, he was a member of one or other of the two Houses of Parliament, or of the nominated Legislative Council.  JB Neales took part in many property deals in the Adelaide Hills, as he lived for a period at Woodside soon after its foundation in 1849.

NEWENHAM, Charles B (1794-1887). - A native of Dublin, Ireland, CB Newenham brought his wife and young family to SA 1837 Navarino.  He set himself up as an auctioneer in Gilles Arcade, Hindley St, at one time in partnership with Henry Watts, another influential colonist.  Charles took a great interest in the Anglican Church and the police force.  Newenham became SAs first Auditor-General and later appointed Sheriff, which post he kept until 1854, when he retired to Bath, Somerset, England, where he died at the great age of 93.  CB Newenham lived with his daughter and son-in-law, Sir Charles and Lady Cooper.  Sir Charles was one of SAs most respected Judges and Cooper Creek is named after him.

NIXON, Frederick. - Appointed assistant surveyor on 29 October 1838, FR Nixon soon became involved in the hectic days of the Special Surveys.  He purchased a section in the First or Mt Barker Special Survey, on which he erected a windmill, the shell of which is still in existence today.  Nixon produced a book of sketches of various colonial scenes.

NORTH ADELAIDE HILL. - Another name for Montefiore Hill (qv).

NORTH TERRACE, Adelaide. - One of the four streets (all named after the points of the compass) which Col Wm Light designated around the grid design of South Adelaide.  Beginning with the permanent Holy Trinity Church in 1838, the boulevard gradually acquired many gracious public buildings bordered by fine trees and gardens.  No other Australian capital city has its cultural institutions so near at hand to each other along one thoroughfare.

OLD TIERS. - From a distance, the Adelaide Hills appear to rise in well-defined successive ridges or tiers.  At first simply called the Tiers, the western slopes, particularly around Mt Lofty, facing Adelaide gradually became known as the old Tiers.  These contrasted with the countryside sloping east towards the Onkaparinga Valley, in the vicinity of Balhannah-Lobethal, which people named the New Tiers.  The numerous woodcutters in both regions became popularly known as Tiersmen.

PARKES, Henry (1815-1896). - Born into a family of poor tenant farmers in Warwickshire, England, H Parkes eventually emigrated to NSW in 1839 with his wife and also a child born at sea only two days before the ship docked.  After becoming a talented reporter for various newspapers, Henry undertook all manner of campaigns to correct social ills in the community.  During 1856, H Parkes became a member of the first popularly elected Legislative Council.  Through a brilliant, though stormy, political career, he became Premier of NSW five times.  Australians probably remember Parkes best for his forceful leadership in the 1890s negotiations to form the Commonwealth of Australia.  Unfortunately, he died suddenly of complications following pneumonia, before the union occurred. T he exact family link between H Parkes and the Battersbys in Adelaide is not known.

PARK LANDS, Adelaide. - Unfortunately, Surveyor-General Light made no references to Adelaide’s unique Park Lands in his Journal.  On a map of the Adelaide Plains, which he drew up in February 1837, Light commented, The dark green round the Town I proposed to the Resident Commissioner to be reserved as Park Grounds.  For a time in 1839, it appeared as though the original 2,300 acres reserved by Colonel Light might be sold off, as he had exceeded his powers in putting the area aside.  Quick thinking on the part of the Colonial Secretary, Robert Gouger, averted this catastrophe.  By the time that the Park Lands were fenced in and tree replanting commenced during 1857, most of the original gums and peppermint trees had been cut down for firewood and building purposes.

PARKSIDE. - Charles Chamberlain (perhaps the Hackney lime burner?) laid out Parkside on Sections 240 & 240, Hundred of Adelaide, adjacent to the South Parklands.  The sub-division grew only slowly over many years, a favoured spot for people with business interests in Adelaide proper.  Around the charming villas, farmers still grew wheat and maintained fine orchards and vineyards.  From the 1880s, many working men’s homes arose along the numerous narrow streets reaching back towards Unley.

PAYNE, Samuel (1803-1847). - A native of Wilts, England, S Payne left his occupation as a Poor House supervisor to emigrate to SA 1838 Lord Goderich, with his wife, Ann, and small family.  Upon arrival, Payne immediately showed a flair for real estate.  He laid out the village of Payneham, with sublime prospects of the Mountains, and induced both capitalists and working men to purchase land at reduced rates for immediate cash settlement.  Soon, within a stone’s throw of each other, were the residences of William Bartley (a leading Adelaide solicitor and land agent), Samuel’s travelling companion EC Gwynne (prominent lawyer and later Judge) and TQ Stow (SAs first Congregational minister).  Probably, a good deal of Payne’s quick handsome profit went into purchase of a Town Acre, on which he built and operated the Auction Mart Tavern, Hindley St, Adelaide (wife Ann was an inn-keeper’s daughter).  The hotel was near JB Neales popular auction rooms and also Gilles Arcade, one of the chief concentrations of business firms in the infant city.  When just about to retire and live the life of a country gentleman himself, in 1847, S Payne died of a bout of influenza, leaving a sizeable estate for his widow and children.

PEDLER, William -

PICKERING PINCH. - A sharp bend in Greenhill Rd, possibly named after John Pickering, a Hindmarsh joiner and wood merchant, who late became a Parliamentarian.  An immigrant by the Asia 1839, he would have sent his teams, or gone himself, to bring back new supplies of timber from the Adelaide Hills to maintain his business.  Perhaps one of Pickering’s loads came to grief at this site.  The exact location of this bend is not now known.

PORT LINCOLN HERALD. - George Dehane, a Stephens Place printer and also investor in Pt Lincoln Town Acres, produced the first edition of this newspaper on 10 April 1839.  Although promising to keep clear of contentious issues, there was little hope of that when the editorial mentioned the object would be to promulgate just accounts of the capabilities of the only safe and commodious harbour yet known within ... SA.  When Pt Lincoln’s population had sufficiently increased, the newspaper would be printed there.  Unfortunately, G Dehane moved to Pt Lincoln, with his newspaper taken over by Robert Thomas, the proprietor of the Register.  With infrequent publication until May 1840, only six editions are extant.  By August 1840, Dehane had resumed his controlling interest in the publication, which became absorbed briefly in a new newspaper entitled the Adelaide Advertizer & Pt Lincoln Herald.  No further issues are extant after 29 October 1840.  The enterprise evidently became another business casualty of the 1840 depression.

PRINCE GEORGE. - A three-mast 482-ton vessel built 1830 at Bristol, Gloucs, England.  Under the command of Capt J Young, the ship left London on 12 September 1838, with emigrants bound for SA.  The Prince George dropped anchor at Holdfast Bay on 26 December 1838 and passengers disembarked at Pt Misery on 1 January 1839.  A great deal of confusion exists between this vessel and an earlier Prince George, which brought German immigrants to SA over a month beforehand.

RANKINE, Robert (1811-1896). - A farmer, R Rankine and his wife, Isabella, nee Gardner, landed in SA 1837 Navarino.  Some time after March 1838, the couple took charge of the dairy management of one hundred heifers or cows, and two of the best Durham bulls of pure blood that can be obtained in NSW.  Formed in March 1838, the Joint Stock Cattle Co had its run on leased land from JB Hack on his Three Brothers Survey between Echunga and Hahndorf.  Further stock came overland and by sea for fattening and breeding.  The Company disappeared amid the confusions of Hack’s bankruptcy and the Rankines moved to property at the Reedbeds, near Glenelg.  Some years later, Robert took up land near Linwood in the Hundred of Light.  He became a JP and was well-respected in the community.

REGISTER, THE. - SA's oldest newspaper had the distinction of being older than the province.  The first edition, produced on 18 June 1836, was printed in Lambeth, in London’s East End.  Colonists had to wait another year before the next edition appeared, when SA was well proclaimed.  For some years, all sorts of troubles plagued the newspaper, which often appeared at very irregular intervals as a result.  In 1854, a consortium headed by WK Thomas, a son of Robert Thomas, the Register’s first printer, bought the business.  Until the the Advertiser in turn took over the firm in 1931 and the Register disappeared, many people recognised its influence in the state as something of a public trust.  Numbers of influential SA citizens wrote either regular or occasional columns, which readers eagerly sought to study.

RICHARDS, Thomas. - Identity as yet uncertain.  No T Richards appears in the 1841 SA Census.  A Thomas Richards, bootmaker, of St Thomas St, Penryn, Cornwall, England, applied to emigrate to SA during 1837.  However, his arrival is unrecorded.  A Thomas Richards had a shipwright business in Hardwick Pce (Pt Adelaide?) in 1847.

RICHARDSON, John (c1808-1886). - A native of Southwark, Surrey, England, J Richardson emigrated to SA 1838 Lord Goderich.  Within a couple of months, he had built rooms on North Tce, Adelaide, where he opened an auctioneering and land agency business.  By the end of the year, John had removed to Hindley St, where briefly he was Government Auctioneer.  During 1840, J Richardson bought a large property from JB Hack in the Adelaide Hills foothills; in 1841, John laid out the village of Houghton on part of this land.  His own farm, he named Houghton Lodge.  Joseph Barritt, the founder of the well-known Barritts of Lyndoch, became overseer.  Richardson prospered.  Despite the claims of a large family, he had acquired town houses on South Tce and then in North Adelaide by the 1850s.  In time, J Richardson retired to Upper Norwood, a London suburb, where he died.  At the turn of the century, the former Houghton Lodge estate was divided into orchards, on whose produce much of the later fame of Houghton rested.

ROGERS, Mr, - the punt operator over the Torrens River.  Identity uncertain.  Beginning with several families in 1836, a number of Rogers identities emigrated to SA before 1840.

ROSINA STREET, Adelaide. - Originally a private thoroughfare formed before 1841 to service a sub-division between Currie and Hindley Sts, Rosina St became a public road in May 1850.  The road apparently takes its name from Mrs William Ferguson, nee Rosina Forsyth.  She and her husband were the first people to live there.  W Ferguson was near his work as auctioneer in partnership with Robert Cock.

ROYAL OAK HOTEL, Adelaide. - Already operating in June 1838, the Royal Oak, Hindley St, is one of Adelaide’s oldest hotels and also notable for retaining its name throughout the whole time.  It is likely that William Joule, a passenger in the Lady Emma during 1837, established the business in a Manning house, one of those transportable wooden homes imported from England.  An ST Gill lithograph of 1851 shows an inn sign commonly seen in England hanging out the front.  The name Royal Oak commemorates how King Charles II hid for half a day in an oak tree following the Battle of Worcester in 1651, where his enemies, the Roundheads, could not find him.  Even though in memory of such a far-off event, Royal Oak is currently the second most popular hotel name in Britain.

SAINT PETERS COLLEGE, Hackney. - This school, the oldest of SAs colleges, began in the schoolroom of Trinity Church, North Tce, Adelaide, principally through the publicity of Dr Short, the first Anglican Bishop of Adelaide, and colonial philanthropist William Allen.  Severely interrupted by the exodus of labourers to the Victorian gold diggings, the first of the buildings on the school’s present Hackney Rd site were erected between 1849-1853.  From the start, the school organisation proceeded on English public school tradition, though with inevitable colonial modifications.  Quickly, the college made a name for itself and old scholars and others continue to support the school in many ways.  Old Boys have made significant contributions to state, national and international life.

SHEPHERD, HJ, grocer, of Hindley St, Adelaide. - No positive identification at this stage; confusion over exact initials a distinct possibility.  A Thomas Shepherd, merchant, signed the June 1838 petition regretting the removal of Governor Hindmarsh from office.  Bennett’s 1840 Directory lists a J Shepherd, grocer, Hindley St.  Later 1840s Directories feature Thomas Shepherd, draper, Hindley St.

SHEPHERDSON, John (1809-1897). - Born at East Heslerton, nr Scarborough, Yorks, England.  Trained as a schoolteacher, JB Shepherdson arrived SA 1837 Hartley, with his wife and family.  Grandly appointed Director of Schools in SA, John organised the first classroom around a wooden building formerly used by the Bank of SA in North Tce, Adelaide, opposite Trinity Church.  Heat and worry caused Shepherson’s health to give way and he renounced teaching for the post as Manager of the SA Joint Stock Cattle Co between Echunga and Hahndorf in the Adelaide Hills.  When this venture failed during 1840, JB Shepherdson farmed at Nairne until 1847.  Then he acted as Clerk of the Mt Barker Local Court until 1861, when he became Stipendiary Magistrate at Wallaroo.  Here Mr Shepherdson stayed until his death in active old age, respected throughout the region.

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN COMMISSIONERS. - The 1834 SA Act provided for a division of power between a Board of Commissioners and the Governor (representing the Colonial Office) in the new province; the Commissioners would preserve a continuity of policy against all the changes in the Colonial Office.  Unfortunately, the two sets of responsibility were not made clear and the Commissioners’ representative, JH Fisher, and Governor Hindmarsh quarrelled constantly, into which trouble the leading colonists got themselves involved as well.  The nine Commissioners, under Chairman Col Torrens and Secretary Rowland Hill, operated from rooms in Adelphi Tce, in the City of London.  Those august gentlemen, seated in their armchairs in a snug board-room, made too many careless decisions.  As part of a package to clear SAs huge debt, the British Government abolished the Commission in 1841 and took over the province as a regular Crown Colony.

STOW, Thomas Q (1801-1862). - A native of Hadleigh, Suffolk, England, TQ emigrated to SA 1837 Hartley, with his wife and family.  A Congregational minister (the second minister of any denomination in the province), immediately he held well-attended services in a large field officers’ army tent.  Soon afterwards, Stow helped labourers cut down and cart pines and reeds to build a Congregational Chapel in North Tce, Adelaide, somewhat to the west of Morphett St.  Later, Thomas took charge of the Freeman St (Gawler Pce) Chapel, where he exerted a tremendous influence throughout a long ministry.  Following TQ Stow’s death, a new Congregational Church in Flinders St, Adelaide, was named the Stow Memorial Church.  Several of Stow’s sons became explorers, judges and politicians, prominent in SA public life.

TEETULPA GOLDFIELDS. - Explorers G and J Williams were the first white people to climb Teetulpa Hill (several kilometres north of Yunta), in 1853.  John Chewings gave the Aboriginal name Teetulpa to his 1863 pastoral lease in the area.  During 1886, fossickers found alluvial gold on the hill, whereupon some 10,000 excited miners converged on the site in the coming months.  Press interest remained intense for a time, but lack of constant returns, together with the high cost of living and almost no water, caused most adventurers to leave again.  Fitful gold mining continued until after the turn of the 19th century.  The old Teetulpa fields are north-west of Yunta on the Barrier Highway to Broken Hill.

THOMAS, Robert (1782-1860). - Born at Rhantregwnwyn, Montgomeryshire, Wales, R Thomas, his wife and family emigrated to SA 1836 Africaine.  Trained as a law stationer, Robert went into partnership with Governor Hindmarsh’s private secretary, George Stevenson, to print the colony’s newspaper and official Government notices.  Thomas’s stone home (named after his Welsh birthplace and reputed to be the first erected in the city) and printery stood on Town Acre 56 in Hindley St, Adelaide.  The family conducted a bookseller’s and stationer’s shop in the front of one of the buildings on the site, with fine cedar furniture to lure customers.  Above the store, daughter Frances Thomas lived with her solicitor husband, John Michael Skipper.  Robert gave up printing in 1842, but acted for some time afterwards as the Inspector of Weights & Measures for the Adelaide City Council.  Colonists admired R Thomas, in stark contrast to his partner Stevenson, whose cantankerous nature lost the firm its lucrative Government printing monopoly and eventually the Register newspaper.  Robert Thomas’s son, William, led a consortium which bought the Register in 1854.  The family continued association with the newspaper until it combined with the Advertiser in 1931.

THREE BROTHERS SPECIAL SURVEY. - Quaker entrepreneur JB Hack took out the Three Brothers Survey on 23 January 1839, after he had endured the disappointment of not securing the Mt Barker Special Survey immediately to the north.  Sometimes thought to be named after three of the sons of George Sanders (JB Hack’s overseer), it is more likely that the survey commemorates three well-rounded hills on Section 3531, Hundred of Kuitpo, adjacent to the main road between Echunga and Meadows.  Popularly, colonists referred to the survey as the Echunga Survey.  Hack lost title to his share of the Special Survey after he went bankrupt during 1840.

TORRENS RIVER. - This river rises in the watershed between the Hundreds of South Rhine and Talunga behind Mt Pleasant.  Confusion about the river’s source caused Mt Torrens to the south to gain its name.  GS Kingston’s thirsty dog reputedly led its master and Messrs WG Field and John Morphett to discover the stream, possibly near its mouth on 6 November 1836.  During colonial times, the Torrens often flooded during winter, causing tremendous damage at various places along its course.  Col William Light chose an elevated site along the Torrens to establish SAs capital city, Adelaide.

TOWN CEMETERY, Adelaide. - Another name for the West Terrace Cemetery (qv).

TRINITY CHURCH, Adelaide. - When the Adelaide Town Acres were ready for selection in 1837, the colonists agreed that the Anglican Church should have first choice of the sites.  Mr P St Leger Grenfell, an English philanthropist, had given enough money to buy the city land, plus forty acres of glebe on which the suburb of Trinity Gardens now stands.  Col W Light chose a central position near the Torrens ford on North Tce, which led to Pt Adelaide.  The temporary wooden building immediately put into place gave way by mid-1838 to a stone church dedicated to the Holy Trinity, but familiarly known as Trinity Church.  A year later, the SA Commissioners gave the familiar clock still keeping time in the church tower.  Many notable events and famous people are connected with the history of this, SAs oldest church.

WEST TERRACE CEMETERY, Adelaide. - Colonel William Light allowed for a public cemetery on West Tce in the original Adelaide plan published in March 1837.  Soon afterwards, burials took place, but none appeared in an official register until 1840, when up to 500 graves had been dug already. (Cf MONCK, John).  Officially, the site was named the Adelaide Public Cemetery, but soon, the popular title West Terrace Cemetery took over.  Before the Government established the West Terrace Cemetery, interments had occurred in a very haphazard fashion.  Many notable colonial South Australians are buried here.

WICKSTEED, Frederic (c1814-1877). - To SA 1838 Lord Goderich.  Shropshire-born Wicksteed became clerk to Messrs Smith & Shaen in Pt Lincoln, but on the failure of that business, he returned to Adelaide to become confidential clerk to JB Neales the auctioneer.  When Neales retired, Frederic bought the business and operated it with W Samson.  In 1856, Mr Wicksteed went into partnership with Messrs Neales, Botting & Townsend and became Government Auctioneer.  He was Secretary to the Anglican Synod and the Leigh Trust, and also belonged to several Lodges.  F Wicksteed was noted for his cheerful conduct of meetings and ability to be a good mixer on social occasions.