The following are various extracts from newspapers, miscellaneous letters, articles and other sources which relate in some manner to the life and accomplishments of Captain John Finnis.  They are listed in no particular order.  Note that Captain John Finnis has his surname incorrectly spelt as Finniss (with double 'ss') at certain times in the following extracts of documents.

The Register, Adelaide, Friday, February 6, 1925

Captain John Finnis - Master Mariner, Pioneer, and Pastoralist - (by A.T. Saunders)

(I) - An Old Book

In the West Terrace Cemetery, on the south side of the main road, is one of the most striking tombs, and it holds the remains of Capt. John Finnis, of the merchant service, a not very well educated but forceful man, who was known as 'The Pirate'.  He was a companion of Capt. Sturt in the journey with cattle in 1838 from New South Wales to South Australia, being in fact the principle partner in that venture.  He had an interesting career which I hope to retell and amplify in your columns some day.  Thanks to Mr Ernest Whitington, of The Register literary staff, I have a book in which are copies of letters written for and signed by this Capt. John Finnis, which letters, no doubt, were written from his dictation, and are not only interesting, but also are of historic value, but which I shall not now deal with.

In the life of Capt. Sturt by Mrs Napier George Sturt, on page 136, Mrs Sturt writes that 'the 1838 overland party comprised Capt. Sturt, Clive Strangways, brother of T. Brewes Strangways, then Colonial Secretary of South Australia, Mr McLeod (who copied, and no doubt wrote, Capt. Finnis's Letters - McLeod was a friend of Capt. Sturt, they were together on Norfolk Island), and Capt. B.T. Finniss, of the merchant service.'
Mrs Sturt mixes up the army Capt. Boyle Travers Finniss, the Surveyer and subsequently, Acting Governor of this State, whose name ended with double 's' and John Finnis, the master mariner, whose name ended with one 's' and it is the later of whom I write.

Capt. Finnis, who had married the widow of Col. Cameron, and who was therefore stepfather, and whose wife was the mother of Mrs G.S. Kingston, the mother of Charles Cameron Kingston, brought his wife to Adelaide per the John Pirie (13 November 1838), and settled in North Adelaide, in the house of Mr G.S. Kingston.

On December 20, 1841, 'the brigantine King Henry, 160 tons, Capt. A. Drysdale, arrived here from Greenock, and was evidently in financial trouble, for The Register (8/10/1842) has an announcement of an auction of her, consequent on a bottomry bond for £1,000.  She was, on arrival from Greenock, consigned to Messrs Frew, after whom Frewville was named, and evidently the captain of her (Drysdale) was removed by the firm of Frew, and Capt. John Finnis put in charge of her.  She was apparently chartered by Gorton & Andrews (was the latter E.W Andrews of The Register; I think so, and also that he was connected with the Frew family), and some long delay occurred, as the date of the following letter shows, for she did not sail till 14 March 1842, and then under the command of Capt. John Finnis.

A Troubled Letter-writer

Copy of letter found on board the brig King Henry, addressed to the passengers by Gorton and Andrews, the charterers of the King Henry:
February 23, 1842. To the passengers per King Henry,
Gentlemen - We have just received your letter of the 21st, and lose not any time in replying to it.  You must be well aware that the detention of the vessel cannot be ascribed to any fault of ours, but arose from circumstances over which we had no control.  We have now the pleasure of informing you that arrangements are in the course of completion which will enable us to get her off shortly, and in the meanwhile we have to assure every passenger on board that, however great the loss may be to ourselves, we will take care that none shall be a loser, either in rations or comforts, by the delay which has unfortunately occurred.
Gorton and Andrews.

Apparently Capt. Drysdale was on board, and in a miserable plight, as appears in Capt. Finnis's letter from Rapid Bay.
Brig. King Henry, Rapid Bay, March 19, 1842.
James Frew, Esq, Adelaide.
Dear Sir - After beating about till Thursday night against winds and heavy sea, I was compelled to bring up at this place with the loss of a small boat from the stern and all the boats adrift on deck.  I have put all to rights, filled up the casks with water, and only wait a change in the weather to start again.  I find the ship is very short of sails, therefore I am compelled to be cautious and careful of them.  The noble captain is on board, but as yet I have not seen him; he is living on the bounty of the steerage passengers, and as long as he remains quiet I will not interfere with him.  There is every appearance of a change.
In haste - John Finnis.

An Opinion of Auckland

Capt. Finnis gives a decided opinion respecting Auckland in the following letter.  The Capt. Porter mentioned was evidently the owner of the brigs Dorset and Porter, who had settled in Port Lincoln by 1840, and sunk his money, and who bulks largely in the early history of Port Lincoln.
Bay of Islands (N.Z.), May 20, 1842
J. Frew, Esq, Adelaide
Dear Sir - I am happy to inform you that the brig is safe in this port.  I sailed from that damned place Auckland on Sunday last, and I certainly must say of all the places that a man could bring a ship to that is the worst for landing cargo and the impositions of the different parties you have to deal with.  Unless the goods were landed by the ship's boats and laid at the store for them, they would not take them.  The consequence is my boat is pretty well knocked to pieces, and the detention of the ship is more than the freight is worth.  In consequence of a letter given the passengers I brought to that place by Mr. Andrews, I have had a benefit with them, and has been the means of detaining the ship longer at that place than I otherwise should have stopped.  But this will be explained on my arrival at Adelaide.  There was not the least chance of selling the brig at that place or anything else, for a good reason - there is no cash in the place.  I made Capt. Porter take three tons of salt at £6 per ton to pay a part of the ship's expenses, and that not being enough, I was compelled to draw on the manager of the Bank of South Australia for £13 4/.  You will oblige me by attending to this draft for fear I should not have funds in the bank to meet it. - John Finnis

The King Henry and Capt. Finnis arrived in Port Adelaide from Hobart (2/9/1842), when Capt. Finnis gave up command of her, and she made several voyages to and from Port Lincoln under Capts. Long and Robertson.
The schooner Joseph Albino, Capt. Hannah, arrived (25/6/1843) at Port Adelaide from Great Britain, and in the papers of 14/7/1843 is advertised for sale. Capt. John Finnis bought her, and in 1849 she sailed for California with gold seeking passengers, and was there siezed by the U.S.A. customs, and abandoned by her crew.  Capt. Thomas Allen was her master, and as he could do no better he left her at anchor in San Francisco with no one on board, and returned to Port Adelaide in the Mazeppa.

Curious Entries

On September 29, 1843, the Joseph Albino commanded by Capt. John Finnis, sailed from Port Adelaide for Hobart Town and New Zealand, and Capt. Finnis had with him his letter book, the blank leaves of which he used to note in pencil his sights for latitude and longitude, the chronometer time, and usual nautical notes.
The first entry is Tuesday 12/12/1843, which and for some time simply records the figures for navigation.
The schooner arrived at Hobart (1/10/1843), and sailed for New Zealand (10/10/1843).
On January 2, 1844, he writes - Dam bad weather and no luck.  He was then apparently bound to Port Adelaide from New Zealand, and arrived at Port Adelaide 27/1/44.
He notes (26/1/44) - Past the Pages 10 am.
I was asked why these rocks of Kangaroo Island are called 'The Pages'.  I do not actually know, but the reason seems clear.  The Antechamber Bay is in Kangaroo Island, and the 'Pages' were usually found in or near the antechambers of royalty and the nobility, and hence Antechamber and Page.
The next voyage was again to Hobart and New Zealand, and the schooner sailed from Port Adelaide 4/4/44, the first entry being 4/4/44 - Mount Lofty east by south 18 miles.
Tasman head was N.N.E. six miles (11/4/1844), and the next entry is 25/4/44.  So the schooner had evidently arrived at and sailed from Hobart.
May 6, 1844 - King's Island N by E 20 miles. he writes, missing evidently The 'Three Kings' north of New Zealand, as he is 172 53 east, but 17/5/44 Capt Bret (Brett) is N.W. by W. 10 miles , and he notes that his position is correct by the chronometer within two miles.
The entry 8/6/44 the schooner being bound for Port Adelaide, where she arrived 27/8/44, laden with wool, whalebone, copper ore from the Montacute Mine, and other goods.
The Joseph Albino. Capt. John Finnis, sailed from Port Adelaide December 11, 1844, and the first entry is 15/12/44 :- Mount Lofty east.  The next day the schooner was off Port Marsden.
On Wednesday 26/12/44, he notes - Strong west winds, heavy seas; plum pudding plenty and be — to you all thou a foul wind.
On 1/2/1845, he notes - Blowing and the sun obscured first day of the new year.
From 31/12/44 to 6/1/45 he had no observations.
He notes on 6/1/45 - This day the sun observed, and this day at daylight got the S.E. trade and strong breezes and fine light winds, all sails set. 26.33, 89.37 east.
On Wednesday, 22/1/45, he writes - All sail set, the current setting to the S.W. Dam good.
Next Day, he writes - Light breeze sand fine pleasant weather, all sails set and all hearts glad.  I want a little more wind to make passage to the Cape (Good Hope) in 50 days.
24/1/45 he writes - Fine winds, all set, dam good run.
On 3/2/45 he writes - Squally with rain, dam bad for the ropes and sail.
On 4/2/45 - Dam good I see but not for me.
On Sunday 9/2/45 - Cape west 27 miles. he records.
On Friday 21/2/45 - I was too dam lazy to take the sights. and Little due (do) they think I am so far on my passage.
Saturday 1/3/45 - Light winds and cloudy, all in sight; dam good.  This night Paddy will be dam drunk and no go.
On 6/3/45 - 20.00 west.
7/3/45 - South wind and cloudy, dam good luck, this day I will steer due north and I due (do) not want to make more than 30 west.
21/3/45 - Squally, dam bad.
1/4/45 - At midnight, fine. Gave her the rags.
3/4/45 - Squally weather, much rain and cold at 8 p.m., increasing gales, shipping a deal of water; at 10 p.m. tremendous sea on, in trysail and fore-topmost sail, down mainsail.  At midnight sea breaking over ship, in fore topsail, and stowed the mainsail, set the try-sail, and at 1 a.m. set the fore topmast stay-sail; ship labouring very much, At 9.30 a.m. set the storm mainsail, and put all to rights, making but little water.
6/3/45 - Dam bad weather.
Friday is entered twice as 11/3/45 and 12/3/45.  Apparently this was the day the last sights were taken during the voyage, as no others were recorded, and 4.12 west, and dam good luck, close the record.

The Joseph Albino loaded in London for Port Adelaide where she arrived on December 8, 1845, still commanded by Capt. John Finnis.
July 8, 1845 - Of ( Off) Margate is the first entry.
17/8/45 - Ten days getting 400 miles, dam bad.
9/10/45 - Tabel (Table) Mountain S. 35 miles.

27/10/45 - Capetown S.W. 2 miles, all sail set for sea.
After she arrived at Port Adelaide from London, the Joseph Albino made three or four voyages to Port Lincoln and Spencer's Gulf from Port Adelaide under Capt. Finnis.
The last navigational note is dated Saturday, January 31, 1846, and she seems to have been near Port Germein, 137.30 east and 33 south.
Port Spencer, which is mentioned, I do not recognise.
The note is as follows:
Port Spencer, west 10 miles.  By the appearance of the entrance I should say it is a safe harbour, and room for all the ships in the world.  The ranges much higher than Mount Lofty Range, and all the appearance of a fine (cannot read two words), and grassy hills, with a gentle slope towards the coast; the shoals run at least three miles from the shore.  The entrance of the port is like that of Adelaide, but much wider, with a bar; not less than three fathoms in the channel.  By information received, the country is well watered near the landing place.  Water in abundance; saw smoke in the ranges.  The entrance in this port appears from the bar when the ship is anchored to be about N.N.E. till you are abreast of a lowly point on the larboard hand, within one cable's length.  At high water then steer west, then you will have a sandbank on the starboard hand about one mile; from the ship from the bar to the lowly point about one and a half miles, as it appears from the masthead.

"Brainy and Forceful"

Finnis, was from his spelling, an uneducated man, but he was brainy and forceful, and seems to have done well financially, being connected through his wife's relations with the Duttons, the Kingstons, Dr Bennett of Sydney, and Dr R. W. Moore of Adelaide.
Perhaps Capt. P. Weir, the Port Adelaide harbourmaster, can recognise "Port Spencer" and can tell The Register readers where it is.

The Register (Adelaide) -  Friday 17 April 1925

Captain John Finnis - Master Mariner, Pioneer, and Pastoralist - (by A.T. Saunders)

The copies of letters and documents herewith give, I think, one of the best, if not the best, accounts of Adelaide and of South Australian early pastoral history I have seen.

They begin with a letter written 21/6/38, the day before the expedition started to Giles Strangways, a photo; of whom, with Spencer Skipper and H. T. Morris, of Anlaby, is in The Observer 3/1/1903.  As Capt. Sturt's journal shows, the party consisted of Capts. Sturt and Finnis, Giles Strangways, George Mc Leod (a Norfolk Island friend of Capt. Sturt and the writer of the letters of Capt. Finnis), Lomas or Lomax, the afterwards self-confessed murderer of Stagg;  Robert Flood, subsequently Sturt's devoted admired, one of his 1845 expedition, and who died an Adelaide publican, and seven other men.  The expedition left Fowlers' Station, New South Wales, on 22/5/1838, the day after Finnis's letter to Strangways, and Capt. Sturt arrived in Adelaide 28/8/1838.   Sturt's life, by Mrs. N. G. Sturt, page 134, quotes from Bonney's unpublished diary:  —  'Not having so much experience, of Mitchell's inaccuracies, Eyre, who started later than Bonney, fared worse, and after sufferings which led to the destruction of many of his horses and the loss of some of his men, he only regained the Yarrayne some three months after leaving it.  Finnis mentions Eyre in his letter of 16/9/38 to Tooth.  The wife of Capt. Finnis and widow of Col. Cameron was the mother of Mrs. W. Hampden Dutton, whose daughter married Dr. R. W.   Moore.  Mr. W. Hampden Dutton died in 1849, and Mrs. Charlotte deSilva Dut ton, an unmarried daughter, died in 1898, (see Observer 25/7/18S6, p. 2-8 c. 2).  The diary of Alexander Buchanan (father of ex-Judge,  Buchanan) records the journey with the 50,000 sheep Finnis writes of for Mr Frederick Dutton to Mount Dispersion (now Anlaby), from New South Wales, July to December, 1839.  This journal is printed by the S.A Geographical Society, but the map therein does not agree with the letterpress.  The Mr. Cameron mentioned in connection with the sheep was a son of Mrs. Finnis and step-son to Capt. Finnis, and brother to Mrs. W. Hampden Dutton and Mrs. G. S. Kingston .

Dealings in Cattle.

Monday, 21/5/1838. G. Strangways, Esq.  Dear Sir   —    As we proceed to-morrow on our journey it may be more satisfactory to all parties if some such understanding as under were made before our final departure, as from Mr. Tooth's letter to me it would appear he did not make any definite arrangement with you.  In the first place you, of course, understand two fourteenths of the expense of the outfit will be paid by you.  In the next, that the cattle are not store from Talongatta nor those I previously selected from the Murrabindin herd; and, lastly, that your man and horses will render such assistance, as circumstances may require on the journey.  Should any loss of cattle occur you will bear your proportion of the loss according to your number of cattle.   I have stated these thus plainly  because I think it better for both parties to know what they are about as the best prevention to future misunderstanding.  I feel assured no objection will be made by you to these proposals.   I shall therefore leave the manner of settlement to yourself on our reaching Adelaide.   —    I am, dear sir, John Finnis Adelaide, 16/9/1838.

John Tooth, Esq., Sydney.  Dear Sir   —     have awaited with patience for some time to notice the state of the market in this colony, and also in order to give you as full and at the same time concise account of our proceedings as circumstances may admit of.   In not writing earlier myself have thought the detail afforded by Capt. Sturt would probably be sufficiently satisfactory.  Our present station is about two (2) miles this side of Mount Barker, and as a run is of a most superior description.  It has, however, within these three days apparently become the property of a gentleman named Hack, who, it would seem on enquiry, has a right by town purchases of selecting any run he may think fit and as a matter of course, and turn those off who are merely squatters.  This is the case with me just now.  I have in view another run equal if not superior to that so unashamely taken from me by Mr. Hack, but in availing myself of it I expect I shall again meet with opposition by the cattle company with which this person is more or less connected.  No immediate sale of the herd is at all practicable.  I have no expectation what ever of being even asked my terms.  Mr. Eyre has sold his for £9 a head, suffering (however much he may disguise the fact) a serious loss.  We have not yet parted with any, and as a consequence the whole establishment at present is outlay, although not in itself material from the reduction of four of the party a day or two ago.  Yet it is an expense I wish to avoid, and for that purpose I submit to your superior judgment the propriety of at once opening a butcher's shop and killing as occasion requires when the bullocks are in condition. 

Price of Beef.

If I find the herd, is as I wish and expect in the course of six weeks or two months, I don't know a wiser plan than at once lowering, the price of beef and thereby gaining a more rapid sale.  Permit me to make one observation as regards bringing cattle from New South Wales here.  Mr. Hawdon could not sell his herd, and to his credit he lost no time in bringing fat meat to the shambles by which only he could be repaid, for I believe from observation that no single individual in Adelaide is possessed of a tenth of the amount in cash they are reported to be owners of.   In Mr. Eyre his cattle at the ruinous price of £9 a head we have sustained a heavy blow, inasmuch as the only parties who cared about purchasing have become as it were independent of the market.   Capt. Sturt started for Lake Alexandrina four days ago, with the intention of setting at rest the question of an available outlet to the sea from that place.  Three of our men have proceeded to Sydney by the schooner John Pine, Capt. Martno, for whose passage as well as balance of wages Capt. Sturt and myself have drawn upon you.  Cash for use or otherwise is not to be procured in Adelaide.  Settlement with Mr. Strangways has not yet been effected, partly in consequence of our unsettled state and partly that just now he is absent with Capt. Sturt.   I am not in good health.  I do not know whether it may have proceeded from anxiety or cold or both combined, but I have had a serious attack, and although better, I cannot compliment myself upon much improvement.  The journey has been to me one of extreme anxiety, disgust, and misery.   ----    Believe me, dear sir,  John Finnis.

A Fatiguing Journey. 

Mount Barker, 25 miles from Adelaide,  9th October, 1838.   Mr, George Tollemache, c/o Syders Brothers, Bathurst, New South. Wales.    MyDear Tollermache   —     As I promised before you left Sydney for your station to acquaint you with the result of my then intended expedition overland to South Australia with a herd of cattle, I avail myself of the present opportunity of keeping that promise.   We have arrived safely at our destination as you may perceive by the top of this letter, and although our journey was both fatiguing and long we may consider our selves lucky in reaching at all, by the route we adopted, that of following the Hume from the Messrs. Fowlers' Station on its banks to nearly Lake Alexandrina.   We left these gentlemen's hospitable house on May 23, 1838, proceeding down the right bank of the river, which continued until we fell in with immense marshes of high reeds, occasionally varied by extensive plains nearly flat, and to where there appeared no boundary.  The reeds were so high and strong that we all but gave up hope of effecting a passage through them, so dense were they.  But acting on your motto, 'Perseverance ,' we continued labouring on though slowly, and ultimately succeeded in reaching a better country, where travelling was easier and safer.  At this time we were on the left bank of this noble river.  Continuing our route after crossing the Goulburn on June 14, 1838, we passed successively the junctions of the Yarrar, Murrumbidgee, and Darling Rivers.  It is only after the junction of the latter that the Murray assumes its name; previously this it is the Hume, and I can truly assert I had not the slightest conception it would have proved the magnificent stream it does.   I say I had no conception of it, because reports were generally so extravagantly exaggerated, but I think it has not been one-half so well represented as it should have been.   I am certain it cannot be at all equalled in any other part of New Holland.  It is not a noisy, brawling torrent, but if I may so speak, 'a gentlemanly, quiet, and withal , majestic river'.   It glides so evenly along you would not suppose its current more than half a mile an hour, when in reality its average is three miles, with a general width of 320 yards.  The depth I cannot exactly say, but where we did note this it was at least 15 ft.  You may therefore judge what a body of water flows through hundreds of miles of country of surprising sterility.

Trouble with Aborigines.

Our intercourse with the aborigines was only marked by one attack on their part of a sanguinary nature, when they succeeded in wounding one of our party.  No retaliation was offered, as travellers now must, by the shameful arrangements of Government, and the farcical laws on the subject, receive every injury from the aborigine in thankfulness, or else be hung like dogs, to satisfy what they disgracefully term justice.  We were therefore very fortunate in coming off as well as we did.  We have been robbed, and otherwise injured night and day by these barbarians, and I can only regret that those who are such mawworm advocates for Christianising the blacks have so little Christian charity for those more deserving their sympathy.  For my own part, I should like to have all such gentry left with natives at the Darling River for a few days.  It would be a just punishment for those with the cant of religion, and otherwise, who encourage murder and robbery because done by poor ignorant blackfellows, forsooth; but what a digression.  We were rather unfortunate a losing a good number of the herd, but as this occurred chiefly to ward the end of the journey I am in expectation of shortly recovering a portion of them.  You must write me, leaving your letters in the Sydney Post Office, to be called for; as I expect again to be there in January 1839, at the furthest.  Let me know prices, and number of different cattle about your place, what number yon have for sale, and as you promised, I expect you have looked up some good horses for me — this, if you have not yet done, you must not, my dear Tollemache, omit.  One more particularly for  my own use.  In fact, tell me everything about stock, and so on.  We are in a delightful country.  The pasturage is not surpassed anywhere in New South Wales.  It is also very well watered, advantages most favourable for rearing stock.  The market, however, I am sorry to say, is not what I expected.  There is cash in Adelaide, and as you may suppose, I am not over and above fond of private bills on England.  I do not know of anything very particular, and shall therefore close this, the more so as I am just about drafting part of the herd.  Should I remain longer than I anticipate I will again write.    ----    Believe me,  John Finnis.

Marketing Stock.

Station near Mount Barker, 25 Miles from Adelaide, 12th October. 1838.  John Tooth, Esq., Sydney.  Dear Sir    —     By the opportunity afforded me by Capt. Sturt's return to Sydney, I do myself this pleasure of sending a few lines, but for fullness of report of details I, of course, must trust to him to afford you that verbally which would be too lengthy for written communication.  Your letter of 18th July, 1838, I only received on the 22nd September, 1838, and although of so old a date, I was much gratified at its receipt.  I did myself the pleasure of writing you some days back by the John Pirie, and in my letter complained of Mr. Hack having taken possession of the run on which we previously had settled, but since then I am glad to say an amicable arrangement has been made by which his cattle will feed in an opposite direction.  Regarding the stock, the only profitable way of disposing of them is, I conceive, by acting altogether independently of those who are already holders, and by waiting a few months.  Since my last I have learned that not more than 100 bullocks are now in the market.  By the time they are consumed ours will be in condition when the market to a certain degree must be guided by our supplies.  So far, this is gratifying, besides which I have been already applied to to furnish butchers with carcase meat, and although, of course no price has been fixed, as they are not yet fit for slaughter, I am quite warranted in saying it will be remunerating.   With respect to the breeding    . . . .(pages 13 and 14 missing) . . . .    As every exertion will be made to expedite the sale of the herd consistently with prudence, I would fain hope I may succeed in reaching Sydney in January, 1839.  The old working bullocks I can sell for from £20 to £25 each, but as same are required to assist in breaking in the young ones, I think it much better to hire the others out for a time.  I am in hope, and I have reason to think the next vessel after this I will be enabled to remit you some money.  It is possible I might have done so before but for the sale of Mr. Eyre's herd at the extra-ordinarily low price of £9 per head, and that partly in bills.  I think the utmost publicity should be given to this sale to prevent others in Sydney travelling hitherwards.  On his (Eyre's) route he lost no less than six horses; he also lost some cattle, besides which his outfit was beyond any comparison far greater than ours, and how he could sell at the price he did seems very singular.  He has hurt himself, and others also. A sale of the herd could be effected by accepting private bills on England, but to this I make a decided stand, and I need scarcely add your instructions on this head will be strictly obeyed.  I have made a calculation, a close one, by which I find the herd will stand us in nearly £11 a beast.  Had we been better supplied with horses than we were, their sale on arrival would have been highly remunerating.  There is a constant and increasing demand for cart and carriage animals.  Should you have any cedar lying about fitted for building, I feel quite assured it would sell well here, say from 6d. to 8d. a foot.   Mrs. Tooth, I trust, is in good health, and also yourself; pray present to her my best respects, and with the assurance of writing by next vessel.    ----    believe me,  John Finnis.

The Register, Adelaide, Friday, April 24, 1925

Captain John Finnis - Master Mariner, Pioneer, and Pastoralist - (by A.T. Saunders)

(II)  More Historical Letters

Adelaide, South Australia, 1/11/1838
David Salmon, Esq., New Zealand,  My dear Salmon -
You may remember before leaving Sydney I was preparing myself for a journey overland to this province, which I accomplished after a most fatiguing and uncomfortable quarter of a year's travelling.  I started from one of the last stations out of the boundaries of New South Wales on the 23/5/1838, with 400 head of cattle and a few sheep - the latter for consumption on the road - and encountered difficulties that required no little labour and perseverance to overcome.  We had a country extending little less than 300 miles, densely covered with long reeds (from 12 to 15 ft. high), to force a passage through.  Fortunately we had dry weather, so that by the main strength of the cattle who broke tbe reeds down ahead (acting something like pioneers) we managed to get slowly on.   We successively passed the junctions of the Murrumbidgee, Yarran, Darling, and finally crossed the Murray (a noble river) below the Darling junction a few miles, and after passing two very beautiful lakes of fresh, and several streamlets of salt water, we ultimately arrived in this country, with which, by the way, I am very much pleased.   It is alternate hill and dale, covered with sward of a superior richness, so that as, you may conclude, it is surprisingly fit tor breeding cattle.  We lost a good many of our (cattle?) but I am inclined to believe I will recover some in course of a month or so.   The market, however, is at present at a stand still.  I have been here some weeks, and not yet sold a beast, nor shall I, at the prices offered.

Dislike of Whaling

Your brother John is here in a very fine ship (the barque Winchester: from London, arrived 23/9/38 - A. T. S.), and curses the days spent in whaling.  At present he amuses himself in damning with great sincerity the port he is now in, swearing the moment he can complete his ballast he will be off for Batavia.  He looks as if he were getting into the sure and yellow leaf of age; indeed, his appearance is quite as venerable as my own, which has not been improved by the three months' starvation on our journey.  Fools are coming in shiploads here from England, expecting to find dollars growing on the trees instead of hard labour to procure existence.  As I fully intend being in Sydney by January, I shall anxiously look for a long letter from you, telling me what you think of this new company about to station themselves at New Zealand.  I would advise you to have your deeds registered in the Supreme Court of New South Wales without delay.  I had mine, which is all the acknowledgment one requires of the jurisdiction of that Court in New Zealand.  If you can rent my land, do so, but not for a longer period than three years.  I hope you find everything as you wish yourself.  I may mention that if you think the speculation worth trying you would find a ready market for building (house) timber, plank 25/- to 30/-  per length.  Maize would realize a ready price of 8d. a bushel, and so on.   Jock appeared to be quite a screw, and is therefore in that respect the antipodes of his brother; he is in good health.   I am not aware of anything further, in the shape of news but I may add that on arrival in Sydney you will again hear from your old and sincere friend.    ----   John Finnis.

Dealings in Cattle

Adelaide, 12/11/1838.   T. B. Strangways, Esq.  —   As you are about branding the cattle purchased by your brother, now running at Mount Barker, I beg to hand the account of expense incurred (£420/7 to 11/11/1838), together with the copy of a letter addressed by me to your brother previous to starting from Cumberpona, showing the nature of the engagement and beg to submit that an early liquidation will be acceptable. — I am, Sir.   ----    John Finnis.

On board the Henry Freeling, 14/11/38.   John Tooth, Esq., Sydney.   Dear Sir    ----    I have hurriedly availed myself of this immediate opportunity of acknowledging your letter not yet an hour in my possession.  It was my intention to have transmitted by Mr. Jackson the amount in cash of the only sale I have effected, that is to Messrs. Hack,  but from the difficulties attending the procuring ^ya.  Oi at a moment, I am unavoidably obliged to defer it for a day of two.  I have only time to say that I shall fully  communicate by next opportunity and accompany such communication by forwarding all papers in my possession relating to any cnariie.  I may also notice that/MBf£15 vfler mentioned will be enterdi«lo.with-the minu tine, that from thellnrtried glance your letter seems to me to demand. ? I wg to assure you of the immediate remittance referred to, and jMn* by oracr (being absent),     yours,  Capt. Finnis

Geo. MA^eWde, 15/11/1838.    John Tooth, Esq., Sydney.   Dear Sir   ----   I have the pleasure of acquainting you that I, yesterday, effected a sale of 24 cows at £19 a head to Messrs. Hack.  This mail I forward the bills that I have now the honour of transmitting, but lor I had to pay £6 as you will t-jrc?ive by the amount; and the bills, I'm first of which I transmit by the' Henry Frealing herewith.   Without awaiting the Ion;: (four or five days), I could not procure commissioners' bills, and as those are good, I preferred to send them to sending gold.  I have not sold any bu'.iccta to the butcher.  —   John Finnis.

Adelaide, December 1, 1838.  -  To His Excellency Col. Gawler, Governor of South Australia.   Your Excellency    —    In conjunction with Capt. Sturt I have brought a very large herd of cattle overland from Sydney, New South Wales.   I need not mention to Your Excellency that very much loss must occur from any sudden removal from where no one had I ever before stationed himself.   I am, therefore, very sure Your Excellency will do me the justice of permitting my paying any amount Your Excellency may deem equivalent for the occupation of the run I hold.    I have the honour, &c, to., John Finnis.

References to Capt. Sturt

Adelaide, 19/12/1838.   R. Barnard, Esq.    Sir ----  I beg to acquaint you that I attended according to appointment at 5 p.m. on the 11th Inst. when I received your letter, but regretted, to find after waiting a considerable time I was the only one who kept the appointment.  With regard to the subject of your communication, I beg to acquaint you that whatever time Mr. G. Strangways appoints to receive personally his cattle, l am prepared to admit their removal, but as it may inconvenience Mr. Strangways to proceed there (Mr. Boucher), has written order, delivered to me in town, will be sufficiently satisfactory. . Rcsi-cctins the class of cattle mentioned in your letter, I beg to refer Mr. Strangwavs to a communication from me, dated May n, 1838.    I am, &c, John Finnis

December, 1838.  John Tooth, Esq., Sydney.    Dear Sir ----  I have the pleasure of enclosing bills to the amount of £l,/00, the best I could procure in the colony.   I left cattle I am compelled to sell in small quantities, such as two or three a time, as fast as tbe butchers will take them.  I will sell for cash, but without, and forward on by bills the amount to you .  My object in telling Capt. Sturt that I would give £15 per head, was that they should not be sold for Iess . .  I, however, also stated that I could not do so without your consent, but as it meets your approval, I will take tbenij at £l.i per head and tronMuit by every immediate opportunity such sum to you as 'nil. at an early period, on/lie me to .i-jnid.ite the amount. Regarding the rate per diem of a dray and working bullocks mentioned in your letter, I would refer you to Capt. Sturt as the head authority for ascertaining the truth of the report.  From my previous observation you will notice that, sales of large numbers cannot at once be effected, time and caution are therefore necessary in order to ensure safe purchasers.  I am glad to acquaint you Mrs. Finnis arrived safe and well (in John Pirie, from Sydney 13/11/38).  She requests to be kindly remembered to Mrs. Tooth, yourself, and family.  I need scarcely add that her best wishes are also those of John Finnis.  (Mrs. Finnis was Ludovina da Silva, widow of Col. Cameron, she who married Capt. John Finnis after the death of Col. Cameron.  Mrs. Finnis was mother of Mrs. G. S. Kingston and grandmother of Charles Cameron Kingston, and her daughter, who married William Hampden Dutton, was mother of Mrs. (Dr.) R. W. Moore.   Mr. and Mrs. WHJ Dutton arrived per Parland from Sydney, December 28, 1838.)

"Anxious to Go Squatting"

Date not clear, but probably January, 1839.   Capt. Sturt. Varroville, near Liverpool, N.S.W.     My Dear Sir  —   I received your letter by the Parland (arrived 26/12/1838), and was much pleased to learn that you found all your family well on your arrival from this province.   My  wife, as you will know, has joined me since you left, so I now find myself quite at home here.  A great alteration has taken place in this town since you left; the people are now anxious to go out squatting, and I expect the old hands will go into the country and make room for the new ones that are coming into the province every week in large numbers.  You will be pleased to learn that I have become the proprietor of the run at Mount Barker, having purchased a special survey of 4,000 acres in conjunction with Dutton and Macfarlane.  This circumstance has caused much sensation here, and has considerably annoyed Hack and McLaren, who both would have taken it had they dreamed that anybody else was about it.  But we Botany Bay squatters gave them no time, but clapped our hands upon it at once.  You will see all about it in tbe paper which Dutton will forward for your perusal.  All the people are looking out for your coming here as Surveyor-General.   I trust we will soon see you here in that capacity.   Dutton has promised to see you, I therefore refer you to him for further news, and remain, John Finnis.

Adelaide, January 2, 1839.  —  Boucher, Esq.   Dear Sir —  I have no objection to accept your offer, and do hereby agree to sell a lot of cows at £18 per head, and also of allowing you to select them with calves by their side, the calves being included in the sale, and as many more cows as may be judged to be in calf as you may think proper, to the number of 50 or 60, together with the Devon bull at £50; the stock to be delivered.   I also will assist in branding them at your station on any day that you may name.   The whole, to be delivered within 14 days if requisite, the same to be paid for on delivery.   —  John Finnis.

Hot Days

Adelaide, January 2, 1839,   John Tooth, Esq. Sydney.    My dear Sir  —  In my last, by the David, Capt. Hart, I had the pleasure of transmitting first set of bills for £1,750.   I now enclose the second series.   From the state of the weather lately (the thermometer a few days ago was at 119 in the shade) I thought it far better not to run the risk of opening a butcher's shop, although at first I considered it the most eligible mode of quickly disposing of the cattle.   I have, however, found since my first communication that the demand is not equal to even so rapid and ready sales as I can effect otherwise; the expense and risk therefore of such an establishment is thus spared, which I am quite sure you will approve of.   Referring to a paragraph in your letter wherein a clergyman (Mr. Milne) is represented as likely to become the purchaser of the whole herd at £15 per head as stated to you in Capt. Sturt's note of 23/11/38.   I am quite sure by a reference to the newspapers I regularly send you, you will perceive the probability of the result, had I allowed it, of such a sale.   The account between Capt. Sturt and myself for the expedition on our arrival here I will transmit by an early opportunity.   Permit me, however, to remark that had the feeling of partnership existed for the benefit (if the speculation it would not have been unseemly to have advanced from the proceeds of the sales of his horses and bullocks, such money as was absolutely requiste on arrival, instead of requesting me to sign in conjunction with himself, the orders you mentions I sold my horse to meet the then emergency.   True, I could have realized sufficient cash for all purposes, but it must have been at a heavy sacrifice, which I feel assured you would not have approved of, but having accepted your offer, as you will notice by my last, I shall drop the subject for a day or two.   I think it is almost unnecessary my again saying that every exertion for your interests and speedy remittances will occupy my constant attention.   Mr. and Mrs W. Hampden Dutton have just arrived, all well.   Mrs. Finnis, I am glad to say, is in good health, and all join cordially with myself in wishing Mrs. Tooth, yourself and family our best regards and the compliments of the new year.  —   John Finnis.

Tenders for Drays

Adelaide, January 14, 1839,   To the Hon. the Colonial Secretary.    Sir  —   I do myself the honour of tendering for the carriage of Government and Commissioners' goods at the following rates, viz.:  — For one 4 bullock dray load, £18/; for one ? bullock dray load, £115/.   —   John Finnis.

Adelaide, February 4, 1839.   Messrs. Montefiore, Breillat & Co., Sydney.    Dear Sirs  —   I beg to acknowledge tlie receipt of yours dated 12/12/38 per Nereus, and to acquaint you that as far as lies in my power I will abide by your instructions for the payment of the sum of £2,500.   It is necessary, however, for me to inform you that I have already remitted on to Mr. Tooth the sum of £1,750: the first set of bills were forwarded by the David, Capt. Hart, and I trust long ere this have come to hand.   I beg to assure you that I will use every endeavour to expedite your wishes by paying into the hands of Mr. Newland (Bank of Australasia) as early as possible such sums as I may be enabled to procure.  Sales are easily effected for all kinds of goods, but under the circumstances I could not thing of accepting for cattle.   The disposal of cattle at this season of the year is very tedious, as from the extreme heat of the weather the butchers do not like killing, and more so because sheep are becoming more abundant, chiefly by the constant arrivals from Launceston, and consequently to force the market would be ruinous to all parties.   I have only again to add, gentlemen, that every exertion to meet the subject of your communication will be made by  —   John Finnis.

West terrace, Adelaide, February 0, 1839,    The Hon. the Colonial Secretary, Adelaide.   Sir  —  On my tender being accepted for the carriage of goods it was with the distinct understanding that all the Government carriage, including, of course, the Survey Department, should be placed in my hands.   I am, on good authority, informed that the commissary has hired drays without even acquainting me with what he might require for the service of that department, and, as drays and bullocks are constantly kept for the immediate service of Government at a heavy expense, may I beg that such instructions as you may seem proper, be given to that I officer to prevent the recurrence to me of so serious a loss.  —   John Finnis.,

Buying Grain

Adelaide, 25/5/1839.    Connolly & Co., Launceston.   Gentlemen   —   I have to acknowledge your letter dated 30/3/1839, accompanying three several parcels of grain (D over W), 63 bags containing 200 bushels of wheat; D over B, 15 bags con taining 50 bushels of barley; D over O, 16 bags containing 50 bushels of oats, which came safe to hand and in good condition per 'Henry Freeling' .   I regret the invoice was not included as mentioned.   —   John Finnis.

Adelaide, June 1, 1839.   John Knott, Esq.   My Dear Knott  —   I beg to confide the enclosed letter of Mr. Moore to your care and discretion, during my absence.   You will observe it specifies prices to which, as the transfer of my charge, I leave to you, well knowing from your superior judgment, nothing contrary to the interest of Mr. Moore will be sustained.   All expense Mr. Moore will defray, but place same to my account as his agent and should you be fortunate enough to find and sell said horses, after deducting expenses, place amount to credit of that gentleman by deposit in Bank of Australasia, making a secondary matter of my own.   May I ask your attention to any stray beasts of mine and cause same to be delivered to Capt. Walker, who is hereby authorized to pay all expenses.   —   John Finnis. .

Trouble with Stray Cattle

Adelaide, June 1, 1839.   Capt. Walker, Adelaide.   My Dear Sir   ----   In sending the accompanying power of attorney to you will you add to past kindness and attention the troubles of receiving such stray cattle as may come into town and sell the same to best advantage.   As if it is probable some invoices will reach here during my absence from the adjacent colonies, be good enough to do as in the case of the cattle.   As a very short time will elapse before I return, again permit me to wish Mrs. Walker and yourself during my absence and through life every comfort and happiness that can attend you.   —   John Finnis.

Adelaide, September 9, 1839. Messrs. S. Peek & Co., Sydney.   Gentlemen  —   Capt. Finnis not yet having arrived from Sydney and being unable to observe your account in his books, I beg that if not too troublesome, a copy of particulars may be forwarded by first opportunity as Capt. Finnis at the date of the purchase referred by your communication of August 8, 1839 was then in South Australia.   I am, however, directed to say that as it is Mrs. Finnis's belief the account is correct, if not since settled, application had better be made to W. Hampden Dutton, Esq.   —    George McLeod.

Dirty Work"

Adelaide, December 15, 1839.   H. C. Dutton, sen. ./*),. ;SXdnp.v^. (?)-Dear Dutton   —   I am happy to inform you of our arrival here on the 9th safe and well, and found Ludy the same and in good spirits.  I arranged to get in the lionsa without or any one person seeing me, which gave her a great surprise when she found we out.   Things are strangely different here now to what they were when I left.   Everything is very dead for the want of some more ships in; there is several over due, and things will take a turn when they arrive.   I find — Ins made a a very fine mess of Mount Barker for us.   I have been trying to get the plan of the sections to send you by this ship, but have not succeeded.   I will have it for you by the next opportunity.   I find there is but one section 'taken for us on the river, and that in the station you saw Mr Rankin on.   He has allowed other parties to take all the rest.   I must tell you I have had a serious quarrel with him about it.  He has got his share measured off thinking to turn it all into cash, but that I will disappoint him in for a dim The day after I arrived I found a j; deal of dirty work going on between — and — .  I followed them up till I got the necessary documents from the butcher, but it was too late for the paper yesterday, but Stevenson and Mann will have it in the nest, then you will be able to see all the particulars.   I will endeavour to give you a rough sketch.   Some time back they sold all the butcher 's stock to a good amount, and in a few days after they tot up a pliop and lowered the price of meat to 8tl. per Hi., thinking to crush all the butchers by so doing, but the butchers have stood it out.   Finding themselves losing by their shop and we in the market they call a meeting privately of all the butchers and make them sign a bond each separately not to take meat from any other person but them, and they would give up the shop and raise the price of meat to 1/ per lti.   All the week. I have been working to get one of these bonds, and yesterday I got it.   The whole will be submitted to the public this week.  I will send you a copy of it next ship.   Duncan arrived safe last Wednesday without the loss of any thing.   Six sheep were speared by the natives at (he Dai-linp;, but they did imt jtet one of them.   I have formed a station CO miles to the north: the dray starts to-morrow with the shearing materials.  Ewan (Cameron) will be in the latter part of this week.   I have had several parties after sheep, but I will not sell under price - ewes 45/ to 30/, wethers SO/ to 40/, tilj I see Frederick or you.   A very lucky thing I came in time to meet them, but I knew neither one of you would be here.   I have met some gentlemen from Swan River and King George's Sound, and I think I will be able to make a pond bargain there, but you must not think I will make a 'Parland' (a ship ats) job pf It.   You have never sent Walker instructions what all the powers were for; there is enough to stock, all the colony for 20 years.   The reason I favour the station to be northward, there is nothing but 'scab' sheep all over Mount Barker.   The place where they are there is no sheep within 20 miles, and a very fine country.  It is a very great disappointment from not finding you on your way here.   The young lady is quite angry with you for not sending Ludy (wime nvsging).

The Register, Adelaide, Friday, May 8 1925

Captain John Finnis - Master Mariner, Pioneer, and Pastoralist - (by A.T. Saunders)

(III)  More Historical Letters

Hard Times

North Adelaide. 11/1/1840.   Nicholas James, Esq.,  Lower George Street, Sydney.     Dear James  —   I am happy to inform you of my safe arrival at this place all well after a passage of nine days.   I found things almost as bad as I anticipated previous to leaving Sydney, but I have been able to a certain degree to turn things to my own advantage since my arrival.   F. Dutton had sailed for Melbourne a few days previous to my arrival, but had taken the precaution, as he thought, to make a sale (a fictitious one, though) of all the stock at this place before his departure, to a limb of the law named H, but which I have been, able to set aside.  The sheep company having taken a certain number of shares previously, it was impossible for him to effect another bona fide sale, and, of course, have prevented any further sale or delivery till Frederick returns.   My firm belief is that he intended to do me out of everything if it had been in his power.  I have kept the thing very quiet as I do not wish to prevent the company increasing in number.   It will be an excellent sale, as you may perceive by the enclosed proposal.   Should it be accomplished it will be very satisfactory to all parties, and the sooner the affair is wound up the better.   Affairs are not so bad at this place as generally believed.   There is a good deal of business doing, but cash is rather scarce.   There will be about 3,000 bales of wool shipped off this year.   One vessel sails for London in two days with the first cargo of the season.  Flour realized a very good price, £35 per ton, and every probability of a rise.  Sugar and tea are rather scarce, but there is a ship expected from Singapore very shortly.   Should you have any heavy logs of cedar, the article will meet a ready sale, but do not send plank, as parties complain of its splitting.   Three ships sailed for the Swan with stock consisting of horses and sheep only - no cattle.   The first sailed about 14 days back, and one yesterday, so that I hope the Coromandel will be there before them.   They are all small ships and well crammed.  I was on board one the other day and should say that must make a losing concern of it.  No doubt you will see Cameron in Melbourne, who will be able to explain many matters to you regarding the affairs at this place.   I have had to pay £500 for Walker, but thank God that is all.   I am in good hope of getting part back at some future day.   Should Cameron not settle that favour of yours I will forward it on to Sydney by the first opportunity.  I have sent you the newspapers, and will continue doing so for your information so far as this place may concern you.   Remember me kindly to Mrs. James, whose kindness I shall never forget.   Should you see Mr. and Mrs. Gantrot give my best wishes to them.   Good-bye, James.   I will send to you by every opportunity.  —   John Finnis.

Looking After Stock

Looking After Stock.  North Adelaide, 24/12/1841:  Messrs. Duncan & Buchanan, Mount Dispersion.   Gentlemen — Having arrived yesterday, I am to acquaint you that it is my desire that the whole of the sheep, horses, bullocks, &c which I left in charge of Mr. Duncan, now running at the station at Mount Dispersion, my property, brought overland by yourselves, Mr. Cameron and Mr. (Capt.) Kirsopp, may still remain in your care, and that for the future you will look to me only for your instructions in all matters connected with the stock or Station.  It is also my request that one of you may proceed to Adelaide as soon as you may be enabled to present me with an account of all deliveries of sheep, Iambs, horses, bales wool, &c, &c, from the station in your care since my departure on May 1 last.  —  John Finnis

Adelaide - February 1, 1841;    George Grey, Esq., Junior Mounted Service Club, London.  -   Dear Sir — In addition to Mr. Gwyne's communication I have only to add that I must regret that all our interests have suffered from the delay that has taken place in not forwarding the necessary documents to enable you to proceed with the sale.  The land grant, I understand, has been forwarded to you by Mr. Gwyne, and has instructed that in the event of your receiving a 'letter of attorney' from Mr. W. H. Dutton, you might sell, but understanding as you do, that we have a joint interest in the property.  I trust all will yet be satisfactorily arranged and at the worst we have only lost three months.  For my own part I am willing to do what ever Gwyne advises in the matter;  and shall leave my interests entirely in your hands, fully relying upon your acting herein as best constitutes the interests of all parties. - My agents in London are Messrs. Montefiore, to whom in case of sale, you will please to pay the one-third of my proceeds of  sale which may happen to be effected independent of or prior to the acceptance of the document mentioned in Mr Gwyne's letter   -   John Finnis.

A Title to Land

A Title to Land. - Adelaide, February 1, 1841.  -  Sir - On 10/10/1841 at the request of Mr. Macfarlane I wrote you forwarding the original land grant of the. Mount Barker Special Survey and addressed to you both at Cote & Company's, and at the Junior Mounted Service Club.  I then advised you that I and my then partner prepared duplicate conveyances of that portion of the estate to be sold in London by yourself and Mr. Walker (the latter gentleman being named simply to provide against any contingency to yourself and, that we had forwarded such conveyances to Sydney for execution of the several parties, namely, W. H. Dutton, his wife, Mr. Macfarlane and Cpt. Finnis.  Owing principally, I believe, to the embarrassed circumstances of W. H. Dutton, and consequently some mistrust among the parties, I believe the conveyances have not yet been executed, consequently you will be at a loss to make out such a title to the property as will enable you to proceed to effect sales.  Under these circumstances I shall endeavour, without delay to prevail on the parties to convey the legal fee of the property to yourself and other gentlemen of London, in trust to sell, introducing into the deed a proviso enabling you and your co-trustee (in the event of you being out of the kingdom or being unwilling to act in this matter - to appoint another trustee in your or his stead, and I trust that no serious detriment will occur to the property by the delay which has taken place.  You will please make your arrangements in London to harmonise with the above mode of carrying out the business.  You are, I believe, fully aware that although the land grant is taken out in the name of W. H. Dutton, yet that the purchase money of this survey was raised in three equal portions.  I am, at the moment, hurrying on to a closure of my affairs and once settled I shall proceed to Sydney.  —  John Finnis.    (This is evidently written to Capt. Grey, in London, although his name is not given in the letterbook.) 

"Very Singulary"

'Very Singularly.'   North Adelaide, March 16, 1841;  Nichols James, Esq;, Lower George street, Sydney.    Dear James — I must indeed complain of your not writing often.  My long Ietter of January 11 last and the non arrival of the Dorset sadly disappointed me.  Harried as I am you must apt expect all the news of the place in this:  Suffice to say mercantile affairs are is miserable as they can be.  I have regularly sent you the newspapers, which, howerer, do not convey to the merchant anything like the real state of matters here.   I send you some 'second' edition of papers as well as the latest.  You will observe that our Governor (Gawler) stands very singularly.  Remember me very kindly to Mrs. James.  -  John Finnis.

Adelaide, March: 17, 1841.   Dear Mitchell — Up to this time I have not been able to get money to remit you, but I am in good hopes of getting my affairs settled immediately, as the whole has now been referred to arbitration.  Capt. Grey arrived here as Governor on Thursday last.  This is the gentleman, who had the Mount Barker property for sale in England, but as he has not disposed of a single acre, the whole will be divided, and each party, of course, will do as he likes with his share.  -- The reported bolter,!  Garratt of the firm of Fisher & Garratt, has returned to Adelaide with, I am told, a very valuable cargo from Singapore, and it is now said that his mysterious departure was merely to cloak his speculation from his brother merchants.  I shall conclude this short letter with the assurance that the moment it is placed in my power I will retire your notes.  -   John Finnis.              

A Reported "Bolter."

A Reported, 'Bolter.'  Adelaide, May -17, 1841.   Nicholas James, Esq:; Lower George Street, Sydney.   Dear James  — I have sent two letters to you, one to Melbourne and the other to Sydney, but up to this date I have not had the pleasure of a single line from you.  I should like to know how things go on with you and the 'fat boy.'  I am endeavoring to get all my business settled here as fast as l can.  The whole has been referred to arbitration, and no doubt all will be settled within a fortnight, and will write you further particulars.  Dutton has deferred it for long, thinking to drive me into a corner that now, of course, he is anything but pleased with his disappointment.   Capt. Grey, the new Governor of the province, arrived here on Thursday last, and has been duly sworn into office.  This circumstance is fortunate for me, as he was the gentleman who was authorized to sell the Mount Barker property in England, but as not an acre has been disposed of, each party may now take his share and do with it as he pleases.  It is an ill wind that blows nobody good is a general (and in this instance to me particularly) saying and a true one.  There has been much political and mercantile excitement here for the last five days, so much so that no Iess than seven or eight public meeting have been held to discuss the past, the present, and the future position of the colony.  The reported bolter, Garrett, has returned and I am told brought a valuable cargo from Singapore, and I have heard it said his intention in leaving was merely to carry out his trip without its being known.   I have continued sending you the news papers at every opportunity, that you may know how the self-supporting colony gets on.   I have written several times to Cameron, but have not received any answer to either.  I therefore must conclude they are either lying in the post office, Melbourne, or have been removed by some unauthorized person, and should you be going to Melbourne you will oblige me by removing them from the post and retain them in your own possession till you see Cameron, or should they have been removed to ascertain the party if you can.  The last news from the Swan is satisfactory.  Stock was selling well.  Pelham Dutton had effected some very good sales.   I hope he will be in Sydney shortly with a good return from your speculation.   Stock cannot be sold here at any price and notwithstanding the certainty of loss, the Sydney folk continue sending additional numbers when there is in reality not the slightest chance of selling a twentieth part of what are already in the province for sale.  The last party that arrived lost every sheep they had by the blacks, and as the distance is very great from here, 300 miles, there is not a chance of recovering any of them.   A volunteer party started from Adelaide to endeavour to find them, but no intelligence has yet been received of their movements.   I should not advise any one to connect themselves with the market here as it is next to impossible to get cash.   Pray remember me kindly to Mrs. James whom I hope to have the pleasure of seeing in about two months.  —   John Finnis.

The Register, Adelaide, Friday, May 16, 1925

Captain John Finnis - Master Mariner, Pioneer, and Pastoralist - (by A.T. Saunders)

(IV)  More Historical Letters

Memorandum by way of record and satisfaction made between John Finnis, of North Adelaide, of the one part, and William Hampden Dutton, of Sydney, by Frederick Hansborough Dutton his attorney of  the second part, and the said Frederick Hansborough Dutton now of Adelaide of the third part.

Whereas a bill hath recently been filed on the equity side of the Supreme Court of the Province of South Australia on the part of the said John Finnis against the said William Hampden Dutton and Frederick Hansborough Dutton and another, a minute of such propositions hath been submitted to the said John Finnis and agreed to by  him as the basis of a settlement between the several parties abovementioned and which minute of settlement is to the purport and effect following that is to say

First — 1,230 acres of land of Mount Barker survey to include one section of land to be sold to the Germans to be the property absolutely of the said John Finnis.

Second — 1,230 acres of land of Mount Barker survey to include one other section of land agreed to be sold to the Germans to be conveyed or otherwise held in trust to secure the out-standing liabilities of the firm of Finnis & Dutton.

Third — 1,500 ewes to be the average age of all the flocks, with a proportion of what eve lambs may be running by the side of their mothers, to be the absolute property and to be immediately handed over to the said John Finnis.

Fourth — 30 rams to be delivered to John Finnis average out of the same flock.

Fifth — 500 wethers average of same flock to John Finnis to be delivered immediately.

Sixth — The whole of the remainder of the flocks belonging to Dutton & Finnis to be taken by Frederick Hansborough Dutton be indemnifying John Finnis against all outstanding claims against the firm of Dutton & Finnis.

Seventh— The said Frederick Hansborough Dutton shall immediately deliver to the said John Finnnis £500 of good discountable bills.

Eighth — The money still due by the Germans for provisions and stock not including the land to be received by the said John Finnis.

Ninth — Legal expenses of John Finnis and F. H. Dutton to be paid by the parties in equal proportions.

and whereas the several parties to this memorandum have agreed to the above minute of settlement and it hath been mutually proposed between them that the same shall be carried into effect according to the terms of the agreement next hereinafter contained.

Now this agreement witnesseth that in consideration of the agreement so mutually made between them and with the intent to carry the same into effect and also in consideration of the accord and satisfaction of the differences now pending between them they the said several parties of the first second and third parts do hereby for themselves their heirs executors and administrators mutually and interhangeably agree the one with the other of them that the suit in chancery hereinbefore particularly mentioned and the pending differences between them herein  more particularly set forth shall as from henceforth be and be deemed to  be at an end and that accord and satisfaction thereby shall or from henceforth upon the full performance of the settlement herein particularly before set forth and for that purpose, they and each of them do hereby severally promise and agree the one with the other and others of them and with their heirs executors and administrators of the other and others of them that he and they should and will forthwith carry into effect the minutes of settlement hereinafter more particularly set forth and specially that the quantity of sheep above mentioned to be from henceforth the sole property of the said John Finnis shall be forthwith handed over to hin by the said Frederick Hansborough Dutton and that they and each of them shall and will make do and execute all such further and other agreements conveyances dispositions bonds or other instruments as to the Counsel of the parties hereto Charles Mann Esquire Barrister at Law shall see useful for carrying out these presents.  And in particular that the Bill now on the file of the Supreme Court by the consent of both parties or such Decree shall be had thereon as to such counsel shall seem best adapted to carry out the views of the respective parties in accord and satisfaction of the pending disputes aforesaid.

Dated this second day of September, 1841.    (Signed)  John Finnis, W. H. Dutton by his attorney F. H. Dutton,  F. H. Dutton.   Witness to the above agreement— (Signed)  Geo. Stevenson, Chas. Mann.   Copied and compared with the original by John Finnis and George McLeod, 21/11/1841.   A true copy, George McLeod.

A private Act was passed June 18, 1856, to validate the sale of Section No. 4448, containing 80 acres, at £20 per acre to Mr. Allen Bell, and this Act sets out this document with additions.

Valuation of sheep at Mount Dispersion, extracted from a prospectus for forming a sheep company.  This shows that the price of ewes in lamb, aged from 2 1/2 to 4 years, ranged from 34/ - to 38/-  each.  Other sheep fetched prices accordingly.  The total sum mentioned was £14,988 11/-, with £750 interest.

 Memorandum of sheep left at South Australia at the time of F. W. Cameron's leaving:—  5,181 ewes and 3,367 wethers from 18 months to 4 years and up;  also 722 wethers at Mount Barker and 617 ewes at Adelaide;  total 9,887 ewes, wethers, and rams, and 1,530 ewe and wether Iambs, 4 months old.

Memorandum of sheep deliveries from time of arrival to date of muster, showed:  — Delivered by Cameron, 600; Kirsopp, 4,042; Duncan, 4,785; Robinson, 1,000 ewes; White, 700 ewes and 12 rams; Hallett, 16 rams; Buchanan & Co., 2942 ewes and wethers; on hand, 14,557; decrease, 270.

Fragment of a Letter to E. W. Cameron

Part of £2,500, which a reference to the letters accompanying will show was to be paid, but it is to be borne in mind that the first item bears a proportion to that amount.

5th.  Cash to Montefiore & Co., £1,000.  This was paid by W. H. Dutton's draft on F. H. Dutton, South Australia, while Capt. Finnis was there, and an account of the advances Capt. Finnis had made in the sheep speculation.

6th.  Travelling expenses to date of purchase of cattle by me, £50.  This item, which goes up to December, is far under what i should be, particularly at that time, and when Capt. Finnis was obliged to live in town nearly solely;  one or two of Allen's accounts, only as a reference, are sent up herewith.

7th.  Cash for Hack's bills, £6.  A reference to the third set of bills may explain this.  Mr. Hack found it requisite to charge Capt. Finnis this for procuring the endorsement of the bank which Capt. Finnis required.

9th.  Cash on Mr. Tooth's hands, £1,190 2/11.  This sum was the balance on January 4, 1839, as shown by a copy of the original draft and the origin bill of Mr. Tooth's accounts.  There are one or two sums, however, for which Mr. Tooth must receive credit.   Some cash to Capt. Finnis, the amount of which he is not sure of,  just as he left Sydney;  also £10 or £20 to your mama (Mrs. Finnis Ludovina da Silva Cameron, widow of Col. Cameron and mother of E. W. Cameron, Sydney, to whom this letter was written).

10 and 11 — The items of interest Capt. Finnis desired me to continue the interest of the same unbroken, except the £50 to  N. Tooth, and as it was understood and is shown by the correspondence that Capt. Finnis was to have fair time to pay the amount of the  purchase money of the cattle, no interest could be charged by Mr. Tooth;  but it strikes me forcibly that either Mr. Tooth must be allowed some interest, or that not so much interest must be charged.   What I think is this, leaving it to your superior knowledge of business to decide whether I am right.   The interest of the £1,190 2/11 to continue until the date of the last payment, which appears July 1840 -- £1,000 to Montefiore — then the balance due Mr. Tooth on  the cattle to be paid out of the £1,190 2/11, after which the amount with  its interest to continue on to the date of settlement with you.   Wishing you every success in this as well as in all your own affairs, and notwithstanding your never having written to me in answer to my numerous letters and believe me, my dear Ewan, ever faithfully yours,   George McLeod.

To  E. W. Cameron, esq., c/o Messrs. Aspinall, Browne, & Co., Charlott place, Sydney.   Note per Emma (Capt. Sproule).  This letter was with some others of Capt. Finnis's, delivered bv me personally to Mr. Saul Samuel for delivery at the office of Messrs. Aspinall, Browne & Co, for Mr. Cameron on March 6, 1842.   Copy of a letter sent by L. H. Culton,  Esq., intended for either of the professional men whom that gentleman may employ as his lawyer of Port Phillip.

Written by the counsel of John Finnis, Charles Mann, barister, Adelaide.  Gawler place, Adelaide, March 5, 1842.   Sir —  By Mr. F. H. Cutton, who is the bearer of this, and by whom you will receive the following papers: — 1.  A deed of partition release and covenant.    2.  A subpeona.   Finnis, and another,  v. Dutton.    3.  A conveyance from W. H. Dutton to Duncan Macfarlane, of the legal estate of one-third of an estate termed the Mount Barker Estate, jointly taken by Mr. W. H. Dutton, Mr. Macfarlane, and Capt. Finnis.    4.  A conveyance from Mr. W. H. Dutton to Capt. Finnis, of the legal estate in another one-third of the same estate.    5.  The copy of deeds of lease and release in trust to sell of the one-third of another portion of the said estate (No. 1).   The deed and partition release and covenant fully sets forth the nature and cause of the partition made of the Mount Barker property, and the cause of the conveyance of the legal estate to Capt. Finnis and Mr. Macfarlane (Nos. 3 and 4).   You will learn from Mr. L. H. Dutton, and the contents of the deed of partition will, I think, clearly show the necessity of the partition, and that it is for the benefit of all parties.   This portion of the affair, therefore, seems clear of all difficulty, and I trust you will be able to impress on Mr. W. H. Dutton that so far as the execution of  the conveyance of the legal estate of the one-third to Mr. Macfarlane and Capt. Finnis is concerned, it is best for all parties that the property should be held is severalty and these deeds executed.   In fact, the partition has satisfied all parties, and the impossibility of using the property while held in common is such that the partition and conveyances are mere matters of common course.  The partition deed will also suggest the reason of the subpeona.   In order to clear away the original and most absurd plan of partition, it has been thought best to put a Bill proforma in the file of the Supreme Court, the prayer of which is that the partition may be decreed that the parties may hold their respective portions in severalty as from the date of the partition deed, and that the land grant may be brought into Court for the benefit of all parties.   I should be glad, therefore, if you would get Mr. W. H. Dutton to forward a power (of attorney?) here home on the spot, instructing him to appear and consent to the decree.   I regret that time does not allow me to have a close copy of the Bill forwarded with the other papers to you.   The objects, however, are sufficiently clear, and care can be taken in sending instructions to appear and consent to the decree that Mr. W. H. Dutton's interest may be attended to.   Thus far the affair is plain enough.   The deed of lease and re-lease of the remaining one-third may, however, possibly require more explanation than I could convey in the course of a letter.   This, therefore, I leave to Mr. F. H. Dutton, who has copies of the accounts on which it is based.   I may state that the sheep expedition to South Australia entered into between Capt. Finnis and Mr. W. H. Dutton was on the balance of account found to be largely indebted to Capt. Finnis.   Capt. Finnis being liable to various outstanding debts due from the joint concern.   In consideration of £— , part of the balance, Mr. F. H. Dutton conveyed Mr. W H. Duttons' one-third to Capt. Finnis, and that gentleman by the deed of lease and re-lease (No. 5) have as you will see conveyed them to trustees upon certain conditions for the explanation (?) of their creditors, and among others Mr. F. H Dutton to the tune of £7,784 9/4.   On Mr. F. H. Dutton will devolve the task of explaining this matter to Mr. W. H. Dutton, and of  showing the absolute necessity of it as a means of preventing a litigation ruinous to all parties.   This task I devolved on him in full confidence that he will make its necessity too apparent for a doubt, and I shall therefore conclude by again reminding you that, however the parties may differ as to this part of the affair, the partition and the conveyances dependent on it are beneficial to all, and may, therefore, be carried out independently of the determination the parties may come to as to the latter affair.     C. Mann. — Carrington, Esq, Melbourne.


Miscellaneous Newspaper Items

The following items from early newspapers contain information related to Capt John Finnis.

The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser - Monday 18 February 1839

South Australia.

Mr Dutton is of opinion, that South Australia is a colony similar to New South Wales, that is to say, a pastoral and not an agricultural colony;  a sheep and wine country, and not a country to produce grain and huxtery.  It appears to possess a droughty climate. The Plain, on which Adelaide is situated, is of six miles extent, and so level, that in rainy years it may re quire some large drains to carry off the water, though now it is as parched up and as bare of grass, as any part of New South Wales.  It has a rotten limestone bottom in some parts, and there is no doubt, but that for gardens and orchards, being a light red loam, it is an excellent soil.

Mr Dutton, Captain Finnis, and Mr McFarlane, have bought 4000 acres of picked land within 18 miles of Adelaide, as the crow flies, and twenty five by the present road.  They engaged as settlers or tenants on their new purchase, the whole of the German Emigrants who arrived at Adelaide in one of the several German loaded ships lately arrived there.  They consisted of 39 families, or about 180 souls, men, women, youths, and children.  These people emigrated from Germany through a persecution raised against them on account of their religion (Luthern Protestant).  They are accompanied by their pastor, a gentleman about five and thirty, and who is a scholar and an eloquent preacher.  Mr Dutton heard him preach under a tree at his new purchase, on which they are now all settled, and pursuing their labours as farmers and gardeners.  Next year they will supply Adelaide with potatoes, butter, and cheese.

In ten days after Messrs Dutton & Co. had deposited the sum of £1,000 in the treasury at Adelaide; for their 4,000 picked acres, six other gentlemen or firms deposited their several sums of £4,000 (in all £24,000), to produce like ''special surveys;" and like special picked estates, according to act of Parliament.  And as Adelaide now abounds with tradesmen and labourers of divers trades and calling, not in request, these broken down people will have to learn farming occupations, and set to work, and thus rid Adelaide of their present idle presence.

The population of Adelaide consists chiefly of Londoners; broken down shop- men and tradesmen of habits, feelings, views, and knowledge, just the reverse of what are calculated to make them thriving colonists.  Necessity, the mother of invention, and we will add change, if not reformation, will compel these people to go to work in the country, in some shape or another.  When they do so, they will be able to get a living; and not before.  Many of them no doubt will be thriving settlers in ten years time, but more (probably) will be a dissatisfied ne'er-do-well class as long as they live.

Mr. Dutton astonished the people of Adelaide, by taking Mrs. Dutton with him to see his new purchase.  Even the men at Adelaide, (we speak generally, of course) have a horror of "the Bush."  As for the women, they think all who go ten miles out of the town, will be murdered by the blacks.

Sydney Gazette - Thursday 4 July  1839.

South Australia.

On no subject can we employ our pen so much to the gratification of our readers as when recording the progress of the overland communication between this Colony and South Australia.  It has often been asserted that a spirit exists in this Colony inimical to the interests of the free Province.  Nothing can be farther from the truth.  It may be that under the irritation caused by the discovery of fresh schemes on the part of the Colonisation Doctors in London to advance

South Australia at the expense of the older Australian Colonies and at the expense of truth and of justice, language has been made use of which might bear such a construction, but it is absurd to suppose that any rational Colonist could wish other than success to a settlement which by opening up an extensive market for our superfluous sheep, cattle, und other produce, must necessarily contribute largely to our prosperity.

At the sale of the late Mr. Futter's properties at Mr. Smart's Auction Mart, yesterday, Captain Finnis, formerly of this Colony, but now a resident of South Australia, purchased 10,000 sheep, now depasturing at Maneroo, at an average price of 19s. 6d. each ; maiden ewes realizing about 80s., aged ewes 25s. , and wethers 10s. per head.  Captain Finnis, who was the companion of Captain Sturt on his overland journey to South Australia, we understand, intends the whole of his yesterday's purchase for the South Australian market.  At the sale of the late Mr. Galbraith's property, some four months ago, the sheep realized scarcely more on an average than 13s. each, thus showing a rise of fully six shillings per head in the value of sheep, entirely arising from the increased facilities for the conveyance of stock to the South Australian market, consequent upon the successful termination of so large a number of overland journies.  This sale is at once a proof of the importance of the overland intercourse between this Colony and South Australia, and a sufficient illustration in itself of the absurdity of the supposition that the Colonists of New South Wales are opposed to the progress of a settlement from the continued prosperity of which they are certain to reap such substantial benefits.

Captain Finnis, we understand, does not return to this Colony after he has succeeded in conveying his new purchase to the place of their destination.  We wish him every success both in his present speculation and during his subsequent sojourn in " the land of Promise," and we congratulate our brother Colonists of South Australia on the acquisition of a settler so noted for his perseverance and enterprize.

Southern Australian - Tuesday 29 August 1843

We observe from our advertising columns another specimen of the untiring enterprise and energy of our colonists.  The Joseph Albino has been chartered by Capt. Finnis, for a speculative trip to the coasts of New Zealand, and he is to load with South Australian produce being the tenth cargo, principally of wheat, flour, and other agricultural produce which has left our ports during this year.  Without meaning to flatter, we must say, that the present shipment could not be in better hands ; and as New Zealand has got £60,000 allowed her by Parliament, and South Australia nothing, it is only fair that the latter should get some of the benefit in this, the only way left for her, which is certainly after all the most honorable, and we trust that Captain Finnis will accordingly get a good price for his cargo.

The Register - Monday 4 December 1922

Charles Cameron Kingston - A Family History,  by A. T. Saunders.

A casual enquiry about the late, Right Hon. Charles Kingston and his father, the late Sir George S. Kingston, prompted me to delve into the interesting history of the Col. Cameron, after whom Charles Cameron Kingston was named.  One fact is clear, and that is that little dependance can be placed on ordinary printed records.  Burke's Peerage is supposed to be very exact, but on page 1502 of 1884 it says, respecting Sir G. S. Kingston:  —  "Knighted 30/4/1870, son of George Kingston, of Bandon, born 1807, married first 1829 Harriett Ann Stuart (died 1839), daughter of Capt. Felix McDonough; second, 1851, Ludovina Catherine Da Silva (who died same year) ; third, E. M. A. C. B., daughter of Capt. Thomas Lupaon (sic), Adelaide, S.A."  Nearly every statement is more or less erroneous.  Mennel's Australian biography says, "Son of George Kingston, of Bandon, Cork, Ireland.  Born 1807, married first time Harriett Ann Stuart, daughter of Capt. Felix MacDonough (who died in 1839); secondly 1841, L. C. da Silva, daughter of Lieut.- Col. Charles G. Cameron, who died same year; and thirdly; E. M. A. C. B. Lipson, daughter of Capt. Thomas Lipson, R.N., died 26/11/1881."  This same narrative is also inaccurate.  Sir George died in 1880, not 1881.  Lady Kingston, the third wife, died 28/4/76, and the second wife did not die the same year.

Arrival in Australia.

The Adelaide Observer (6/11/80) gives an account of Sir George, and (11/12/80) gives his obituary, which correctly says that he arrived per Cygnet first time 11/9/1836, and after visiting Eng land in the Rapid, returned to Adelaide in the Eden (which arrived 24/6/1838), (bringing his first wife ,with him. Sir George left two surviving sons and three daughters, one being Mrs. Hubert Giles.  Apparently he was first married in 1829.  History is mixed respecting Col. Cameron, the grandfather of Charles Cameron Kingston, and the bio- graphical dictionary does not contain any account of Sir George Kingston or of Col. Cameron, but on page 288 of vol. VIII. is an account of Charles Duncan Cameron, son of an old peninsula officer, Col. Charles Cameron, of the 3rd Buffs."  This is wrong.  Cameron was born in 1827, died 1870, and, as the military records show, could not have been the son of Col. Charles Cameron, of the 3rd Buffs.  Charles Duncan Cameron was the once renowned consul in Abyssinia, whose capture and detention caused the Abyssinian war.  The historical records of the Brtish Army contains a long account of the old and celebrated Imperial 3rd Regiment, the Buffs, but has no record of a Col. or Lieut.-Col. Cameron.  On page 230, however, it records that at the battle of Albuera Capt. Cameron was wounded and made prisoner.  On page 235 it says that (10/11/1813) Capt. Charles Cameron was wounded, and on page 236 Febuary, 1814, Brevet Major Cameron was wounded.  In 1814 the Buffs were sent to America, and in 1821 embarked for New South Wales. (23/1/27) one wing embarked at Sydney for Bengal, and arrived in June, 1827.  The other wing embarked 28/11/1827 for Calcutta, and arrived in February, 1828.  I am told by a great grandson of Col. Cameron that the colonel died of cholera at Chinsurah, India, in 1828; but Hennikerr-Heaton's Australian Dictionary of Dates says, "Headquarters of the 3rd Buffs arrived in the Commodore Hayes at Sydney August 29, 1823. and under Col. Stewart embarked at Sydney for England November 28, 1827.  The romantic story of Col. Cameron is that, when in Portugal, he met an ex-nun named Da Silva, and married her.  They had several daughters and sons.  After Col. Cameron's death, his widow married a merchant sea captain named John Finnis.  One daughter married Mr. William Hampden Dutton, who died in Melbourne 21/11/1849, and was one of the eariiest settlers in the district of Port Phillip (Register, 12/12/43).  Mr. Dutton and his brothers Frederick Halsborough Dutton, the original owner of Anlaby, and F. S. Dutton, who was Agent General for South Australia in London till 25/1/77, when he died, were sons of Frederick Hugh Dutton, who died 27/12/1847 at Rotterdam, and who for many years was British Consul at Cuxhaven {Register; 3/3/48).  Another married (10/4/1841) Sir George Kingston.  A third daughter married the celebrated Dr. George Bennett, who for years resided in Sydney (see Henniker-Heaton, page 233).   As to the sons, Henniker-Heaton (page 33) says that Ewan Wallace Cameron was born in France (26/7/1816), and was the second son of Col. Cameron, of the 3rd Buffs.  He went to and returned from California, became a partner in T. S. Mort and Co., of Sydney; married in 1852 Sophia. daughter of Mr. George Nail.  He was an enthusiastic N.S.W. volunteer, and died (25/5/1876), leaving a large family.  Mrs. Dutton, Charlotte Da Silva Cameron, had a large family, and on Deaember 3, 1851, Luduvina, aged 18, and apparently the Duttons' eldest child, was married by the Rev. T. P. Wilson, in Saint John's Church. Adelaide, to Robert Waters Moore. M.R.C.S., surgeon.  The witnesses were F. H. Dutton and Montague Fether stonhaugh.  Among the collection in the S.A. Archives are portraits by S. T. Gill of both, Fetherstonhaugh and Capt. John Finnis.  The latter's portrait seems to lend colour to the rumour that Capt. Finnis had some buccaneer experiences.  The Southern Australian, 1/9/1838, p. 5, c.1, records the arrival overland from New South Wales of Capt. Sturt, and Capt. Finnis was one of Capt. Sturt's party.  Evidently Capt. Finnis settled in Adelaide, for the directory for 1839 includes Capt. Finnis, North Adelaide.  The name does not appear the next year, but does in 1841— 'Mrs. Capt. Finnis, Bernard street, North Adelaide.

Birth of Charles Cameron Kingston.

I have not been able to ascertain how and when Mrs. Finnis arrived, but The Register (7/3/40) records that 2/3/40 the  Mary Ridgway arrived from Sydney with Miss Cameron as a passenger.  The Register (17/4/41) records that on (10/4/41), at Trinity, the Rev. J. Farrell married G. S. Kingston to Ludovina Da Silva, youngest daughter of the late Lieut. Col. Charles Cameron, of H.M.'s 3rd Regiment.  The death register says; Ludovina Catherine de Silva Kingston, wife of G. S. Kingston, Franklin street, died 21/10/1851, aged 27, so she was born in Sydney in 1824, and was only 17 when she was married to Mr. Kingston.  She was married for 10 years and six months, and had three boys and three girls, of whom Charles Cameron Kingston was the youngest child.  He was born 22/10/1850, and was not quite a year old when his mother died. 

Capt. Finnis became the step-father-in- law of Mr. William Hampden, by his marriage to the widow Cameron and the marriage of Mr. Dutton to Charlotte Da Silva Cameron must have occurred in 1833, or before that date, as Mrs. Moore, their first daughter, was only 18 when in 1851 ahe married Dr. Moore.  Mrs. Luduvina Rosa Finnis, nee Da Silva Cameron, and wife of Capt. Finnis died in Adelaide (21/8/1856).

The Register (2/2/39) records that Mr. Hampden Dutton, Capt. Finnis, and Osmond Giles are lucky owners of the Mount Barker special survey, and that Captain Finnis had made a donation to the Hahndorf school house (4/4/39) it mentions that Capt. Finnis with 25,000 sheep and 7,000 cattle was coming over land, and (5/10/39) his arrival is recorded In The Sydney Morning Herald (26/5/1876) and 27/5/1876), and The Town and Country Journal (3/6/6) are the obituary notice and portrait of Ewan Wallace Cameron, son of Col. Cameron and brother of Sir George Kingston's second  wife. The notice says he was nearly 60, that he was the second of three sons, and that his mother was a Portuguese lady, who had also three daughters to Col. Cameron, who was five times wounded, and whose family held letters of high commendation from the Duke of York, Sir John Byng, Lord Fitzroy Somerset (Lord Raglan), and others.  Ewan Wallace Cameron came to South Australia with his stepfather, Capt. Finnis, and Capt. Sturt, in the party which his brother-in-law (Mr. Dutton) and others organized.  When he returned from Adelaide he took up runs in the north of New South Wales. and when gold was discovered in California he went thither and remained for two years. He was not a successful goldfinder and returned to New South Wales, where in 1852 he married Sophia, daughter of Mr. Georce Nail, formerly private secretary to Lord Minto.  Arthur Kingston Moore, eldest son of Dr. Moore, of Adelaide, married Sophy Cameron, daughter of Ewan Wallace Cameron. The Australian pocket Almanac for 1826, issued by the Sydney Government printer, R. Howe, gives a full account of the 3rd Buffs, then in Sydney.  Sir Henry Clinton was time Colonel (date of rank, 9/8/15), he died in 1828 and Sir George Dow became Colonel. William Stewart (Colonel) was Lieut.-Col. (date of rank, 16/8/1810).  He resided in Sydney and as Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales. C. W. Wall (date of rank, 13/9/1821), and Henry Marlay (date of rank. 20/6/1822) were the Buffs majors, and both resided in Sydney.  There were 10 captains, and of these C. Cameron (Lieutenant-Colonel) was the senior the date of his rank being ./12/1804.  He lived in Sydney and was acting major brigade.  From the records of the Buffs, it appears that Lieut.-Col. Stewart had acted as a Colonel, not necessarily in the Buffs, and that Capt. Charles Cameron had been a Brevet Ma jor and a Lieutenant-Colonel.  The regiment, 4/6/1815, embarked from Quebec for Europe, and was ordered to Flanders, but was on the sea when Waterloo was fought.  The Buffs landed at Ostend 9/7/1815.  The second battalion was disbanded (24/12/15), and only 11 companies were retained— 10 in France and 1 in England.  The Buffs formed part of the army of occupation in France till 1818, when they embarked to Calais (31/10/1818) and landed at Dover, comprising 867 non-commissioned officers and men.  In 1826 the regiment was in Bhaugulpore, East India, and according to The S.A. Register (4/12/44) was then in India and had been there nearly 16 years.  The disbanding of the second battalion of the Buffs and the drastic army reductions after Waterloo explains possibly why and how Charles Cameron, who had been a Lieutenant-Colonel, was only senior captain in 1825.

Capt. John Finnis married (3/9/1856) Mary Ann Russell, and a quarrel ensued with Mr. G. S. Kingston.  Capt. Finnis died 13/8/72, aged 69, and is buried in West Terrace on the south side of the main road.  Mr. F. S. Dutton married a daughter of Marshal MacDermot; Judge Stow married her sister; Samuel Tomkinson married another sister; and Mr. Taylor, connected with Elder, Stirling, and Co. and the Wallaroo Mines: married the other of the four Misses MacDermot.  Capt. Finnis owned the Joseph Albino schooner, which in 1849 sailed from Port Adelaide for California with a full compliment of passengers.  She arrived in San Francisco, but was seized for alleged smuggling, and as the master had no crew on board and could get no hearing from the American officials, he had to leave the vessel at anchor in San Francisco and return to Adelaide, bringing the ship's clearance.  Thus Capt. Finnis lost his vessel.  The above appeared an portion of Saturday's Issue.                            

South Australian Register - Thursday 8 November 1855

Opening of The Great Eastern Road Through Mount Barker

Sir,    —   It will, I know, create but little attention from the public to publish a complaint against that great ' obstructive' to real public convenience  —  the Central Road Board.  Complaints to or against that august body are alike useless, and you, as the well-wisher of all in this colony, will, I feel persuaded, be glad to bear that the inhabitants of this township, after exhausting their patience in endeavouring to move the cumbrous Central Board to carry the road through the township by the least expensive and most convenient route, have kicked the Board overboard, with its map3 and preliminaries, levels, orders, and counter-orders, and its everlasting twaddle, and opened the road at their own expense with a very limited assistance from the District Council.

The following account will best place before your readers the great benefits the Central Board has showered on the township: 

Years have elapsed since a grant was set aside for the opening of this line through the township; and now only a few of the pegs bid down by Mr. Chauncy remain — weather- beaten and decayed — indicative of what, in days gone by, was intended for this important line.  The property intersected by that line could then have been purchased for a comparative trifle; now a large sum would be required to purchase the road.  And after the hundreds already spent in surveying, mapping, and reporting, it is now entirely abandoned — not for a better or a shorter or more level line, but apparently for no other purpose than asserting their right to squander, ad libitum, the funds under their control.

The opening of the line has again been agitated of late by two opposing parties — one having openly and fairly recommended that it should lead through the centre of the township, as being the most level, the most economical, and of most public benefit, and suggesting that an impartial survey should be made of the best line chosen; whilst the other has unceasingly tormented the Board to have it their way, comprising a pleasant variety of swamp and sand hill.

A comparative survey was accordingly made; the result is, that the Central Board, reversing the fable of the ' Man with the Ass,' have determined to please nobody, and have fixed on an intermediate line, of which the main portion is black bog land, relieved by an abrupt ascent, to make which available will be enormously expensive.  But that don't signify.

The public, unable to tolerate any longer such absurdity, have put their shoulders to the wheel; and the road most useful to the public being now open, through the munificence of Captain John Finnis (to whom Mount Barker mainly owes its present position) and the energy of the people.  I trust the Central Road Board will see that the cash long since in their hands would have been better spent in making or opening a road most useful, than by remaining in its coffers to be expended at some future opportunity in making the road, as is still proposed, over the picturesque hills and valleys, disdaining the nearly level way chosen and now opened by the people.

I am, Sir,   A FARMER - Mount Barker, Nov. 5, 1855.

South Australian Register - Saturday 5 October 1839

Capt. Finnis's Overland Party.

It must be gratifying to every well-wisher of the colony to learn that our enterprising colonist Capt. Finniss, with the the largest overland party which has ever reached South Australia, is now approaching the confines of the province.   Notwithstanding the present dangerous state of the roads, Mr McLeod proceeds, in the course of the ensuing week, to meet the expedition, with a large supply of provisions.  We understand that in addition to his original purchases, Capt. Finniss has added 4000 sheep, so that the number of sheep he brings with him amount to about 25,000.  The cattle, to the number of 7000, come by the Portland Bay road.

South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register - Saturday 2 February 1839

First Special Survey.

We are informed that Mr Moore of Sydney is not connected with the survey of the Mount Barker district taken by Mr. Hampden Dutton, but that Captain Finniss, who accompanied Captain Sturt overland from Sydney, possesses a large interest in this fortunate selection.  Captain Finniss has contributed very liberally towards the erection of the church and school-house for the new village of Hahndorf.  It is stated, we observe, by Mr. Mann in his last paper that Mr. Gilles, the Colonial Treasurer, has no interest in this survey.  We are requested to state that Mr. Mann's assertion is, as usual, untrue.

Geelong Advertiser - Thursday 26 September 1844

New Zealand

(From the Adelaide Observer).  The Joseph Albino has brought to these shores about forty German men, women, and children, who, being reduced to a state of extreme destitution and distress, were glad to avail them selves of the opportunity afforded by Captain Finniss, to quit the land of their disappointment for one which, (it is to be hoped), will be found every way adapted to their wants and circumstances.  These emirgrants are amongst the many dupes of the New Zealand Company, having bought and paid for their land in Germany, fourteen months ago, without even being shown it up to the time of their leaving the settlement of Nelson.  They describe the state of the Colony as wretched in the extreme.  All who can leave (English as well as Germans) are leaving.  Another batch of Germans was waiting to escape by the next vessel, and will probably arrange with Captain Simpson for their passage hither.  The Albino left several English settlers at Hobart Town.  The reverses of the Company at home were pretty generally known in New Zealand, reverses of which our readers may form some idea from the language of the Directors themselves at a court of proprietors of the New Zealand Company held in London on the 15th March, in which they admit "that the Company was at that moment deprived of all means of usefulness as an instrument of Colonisation, and in great danger of becoming a total wreck as respects even the property of the shareholders and the settlers."   The meeting was adjourned till the 29th March, but up to the 24th April, there had been no settlement of the points at issue between the Company and the British Government, nor was there any immediate prospect of a satisfactory termination of the pending attempts at regenerative measures.   The Joseph Albino's Germans will he located for the present at the suburban village of Klemzig which from the first seems to have been allowed as the primary resting place of our peaceful fellow-settlers of that nation.   Capt. Finniss netted only £9 a ton for his best flour.

Southern Australian - Saturday 1 September 1838

Arrival of Captain Sturt.

It is with the greatest pleasure we announce the safe arrival of Captain Sturt in our Colony.  Under any circumstances a visit from an individual to whose exertions in the field of geographical discovery we as colonists are so much indebted, would have been an interesting event but it is much more so when we find that not only the same enterprising spirit distinguishes him, but that it has been again directed for our benefit.  He has brought overland from the Hume river between 400 and 500 head of cattle, and he performed the journey in little more than three months.  Captain Sturt is accompanied by Capt. Finniss, Mr. McLeod, Mr. G. Strangways, and eleven men.  At present, but little has transpired of the particulars of the journey, and we hear it is the Captain's intention to transmit his observations to England for publication.  It is, however, highly gratifying to know that his opinion of the soil, the pasturage, and the future prospects of this Colony both as respects grazing and agriculture, is highly favorable, and that he speaks in the same high terms that others have done of the land to the eastward of our mountain range.

Captain Sturt is about to confer another benefit on the Colony.  He proceeds almost immediately to the coast at Encounter Bay, and intends to examine and determine the entrance into Lake Alexandrina from the sea.  We shall thus bave another important question settled, and that by one whose judgment is not to be warped by party considerations, and whose ability and experience entitle him to credit.  Nothing can be more ridiculous than the way in which this question has hitherto been treated, and those who have advocated the existence of a splendid harbour and navigable entrances have published a great deal of nonsense with a flourish of trumpets, as if those who thought there was no evidence of either, were glad of the deprivations they deplored.  We should, for instance, be very glad to credit the statements made by Captain Gill,  late of the Jenny, but his story, as we have heard it, is so contradictory to other statements, that we prefer waiting for better authority, before by any sanction to it another wreck be led to decorate those shores.

Captain Sturt will however soon decide this point, and our only regret at his immediate departure is, that we fear it will, for the present, prevent that public testimony of respect and esteem which we know the colonists intend to pay him.  It was proposed to invite him to a public dinner this ensuing week; but his early absence will postpone it until his return.

South Australia - Tuesday 17 April 1849

Mount Barker Land Sale.

Mr Hades, in pursuance of advertisement, proceeded on the show day to sell by auction Capt. Finnis's allotments in this town.  From 25 to 35 half acres blocks, in all, were sold, varying in price from £17 to £38.  On the whole, land brought excellent prices, and the title-deeds are only waited for, when the township will arrange the appearance of a form.  It is understood they are to be made out instantly.

The Register - Thursday 2 February 1928

First German Settlement -  Unwritten History (By A. T. Saunders).    

The notes of Pastor Brauer on German colonists in Saturday's Register are amusing.   It seems that the 500 poor Germans, who were helped to leave Prussia and to come to South Australia somehow put South Australia under some obligation by allowing themselves to be brought here, and the late Mr. G. F. Angas and South Australia should, according to Pastor Brauer, 'acknowledge the debt it owes to them.'   I always thought it was the other way round, and that the Germans owed debts to South Australia and G. F. Angas.

I enclose an extract from the journal of Capt. Hahn, of the Zebra, with which Pastor Brauer was familiar.   In George Stevenson's Gazette and Mining Journal, 26/10/50, p.4. c.1, and 31/10/50, p.1. c.5, are articles by the Rev. Mr. Austin on the Germans.   If I ever read what Mr. Austin wrote, I have forgotten it, but anyway his testimony is worth perusal.   The letters of Pastor Kavel and his brother are also worth reading, and their tone is different from that of Pastor Brauer.   The life of G. F. Angas by Hussey and Hodder, should also be read.   Mr. Angas and his cousin established the Union Bank of Australia, and he had to sell out because he was pressed for cash, unexpectedly, in connection with his German debts and his agent's land purchases.

First 500 Germans in South Australia.  Extracts from the journal of Capt. D. M. Hahn, of the Danish ship Zebra:  —  Left the Elbe 21/8/183C with 100 adults and 91 children, the surgeon, Matheison, and crew 16, or 217 on board the vessel.   Then comes a long account of the voyage.   Sighted Kangaroo Island  27/12/38.   Six men from the shore came on board 29/12/38, and said our flag was the first foreign flag to be seen in South Australia.   Five adults and six children died on the voyage.   The rest, 187, were in perfect health.   There must have been some births on the voyage.   The people from the Zebra were put into the huts at Port Adelaide (Old. Port), erected by the Germans per Prince George.   Capt. Hahn met Mr. Gouger in Adelaide, who boasted of his landed property, so Capt. Hahn suggested he should settle the Germans on some of his land, but this proposal diminished Gouger's affluence into a scanty income.  As aliens, the Germans could not buy land.   Capt. Finnis, Mr. Metcalfe, and Mr. Dutton could do nothing for my anxious passengers then, but Mr. Dutton came on board a few days after and told me he had bought land at Mount Barker, and invited Capt Hahn to see it.   On January 24, 1839, Capt. Hahn and Mr. Dutton rode in a carriage to see the land; there were also 12 gentlemen on horseback and a second carriage filled with ladies.   At 11 a.m. they had ascended Mount Lofty, and had a beautiful view there, which Capt. Hahn describes.   After having ridden about six 'months' (miles), a beautiful valley presented itself.   Mr. Dutton and I were the first who reached this valley.   Capt. Hahn had time to ascertain the real nature of the soil.   The want of water is not felt as the River Onkaparinga, which is 6 ft. deep, traverses the valley, and on its surface fish of various kinds.   They proceeded further . .  I   did not leave the valley without wishing that it might be granted to my emigrants.   We reached Mr. (Capt, John) Finnis's cattle station at dark, where two tents stood, and there passed the night.   I was up before the sun and was delighting myself with the prospect.   Beside our hut flowed a fresh-water stream from east to west.   About four miles from us lay Mount Barker.   We drove to the foot of Mount Barker, and at 8 a.m., 25/1/1839 ascended this hill.    From its summit I perceived the bay of Alexandrie (sic) and also the Murray Mouth.   At 11 a.m. they assembled for breakfast, and Mr. Metcalfe, a part owner, Mr. Finnis, and Mr. Dutton sat under the shade of a tree, and Capt. Hahn asked them to grant 100 acres where the Germans might form a settlement.   The three were inclined to bring the Germans to their land, and Capt. Hahn effected the following con tract with them, which he noted then in his pocket book, and became the basis of the actual agreement.   Dutton, Metcalfe, and Finnis will order at least 150 acres of land to be measured off for the Zebra Germans, and let them have it rent free for the first year, 38 acres for building, the rest for cultivation.   A year's provisions in advance to be furnished the Germans.   All their baggage shall be brought up.   Six milch cows shall be loaned to the community; milch cattle gratis shall be supplied, changed every three months; every family shall always retain two good milch cows.   The Germans shall have the use of the cattle gratis with grazing grounds.   Poultry, ducks, pigs, and geese shall be furnished the Germans in advance in expectation that with butter, eggs poultry, fruit, and vegetables which they will bring to market, their circumstances will soon improve.   This arrangement being only for the first year, it shall be regarded as an experiment.   If everything succeeds and the gentlemen find that the Germans are diligent and laborious, each family may rent the following year at much land, at a moderate rate, as they can cultivate.   They engage to build, next year, a church for the emigrants as their own expense, in which, however, the Germans are to render every assistance.   Mr. Dutton promises £20, Mr. Metcalfe £10, and Mr. Finnis £10 per annum for the support of a preacher and school master.   Mr. Cook (a farmer who was with us, but who did not really belong to the party) was nominated chief and treasurer for the first year, for which board and lodging and £40 salary were promised him.   Any emigrant who has sufficient to buy cows of his own, may pasture them free of charge.   When all this was brought to a conclusion it was 1 o'clock. I told the gentlemen I had now carried my point, and if they  would not take it amiss I would immediately return (to Port Adelaide).   A servant was sent to show me the way, and at 9 p.m. I was again in Adelaide.   It was so dark that I did not venture to go to the harbour, and the following morning very early went to the port and on board.   The journal extracts cover three foolscap pages of small type, but the foregoing gives the gist of the South Australian portion.

The Register - Monday 7 March 1904

Mount Barker and its Districts

A Historical Town  -  Some Old Time Memories . . [No. 1.— By our Special Reporter]

The pride to rear an independent head and give the lips we love unborrowed bread;   To see a land from shadowy forests won, to youthfull beauty wedded to the sun.  To skirt our homes with harvests widely sown, and call the blooming landscape all our own. 'These were our hopes, high moulded hopes and str???,   That beckon'd England's wanderers o'er the ??"??e.  To lands where southern constellations shine.  

In such words as these the late Mr. George French Angas referred to the original settlers at Mount Barker.  They have, indeed, won a land from shadowy forests, and skirted their homes with har vests widely sown.   Sturdy, self-reliant, doggedly determined, hard-working men more than 60 years ago went out into the hilly woods, made their homes, and laid the foundations of what is now one of the most prosperous towns in the state.   They must have been of grand fibre. Their decendants today are men of mark, working with the same earnestness and the same high ideals for the improvement of their town and the advancement of the state.   Be it in manufacturing, in stockraising, in dairying, or in farming, the present generation are worthy followers of their fore-fathers.   The names of many of the early settlers are writ large in the history of the state's progress.   They are held in affectionate recollection by the people of today.   Such, names as those of Mr. John Dunn, the Paltridge family, and Mr. Barr-Smith come to mind whenever Mount Barker is mentioned.   To their energy and liberality the town owes much.   On all sides are indications of their generosity.   This place has, indeed, been fortunate in having such open-handed men at the head of its affairs, and men of keen business ability to carry on its main industries.

Little more than the diamond jubilee of the town just passed, and the historian can write of it that it has fulfilled expectations.  The first pioneers crossing the Mount Lofty rangers saw stretching before them a land of dense forests, of glorious herbage throbbing with life.   Kangaroos roamed the scrub, waterholes were thick with slime, and the rivers stocked with fish.   They had spied out the promised land.     Their decendents and some of them themselves say today it has indeed been a land flowing with milk and honey.   It is a fine tonic to spend a few hours with the confident, prosperous people of the district.   Ups and downs have been experienced, but just new, thanks to mill holdings cultivated on scientific principles, to several large and important industries, and to a determined, independent, resourceful population, the district is enjoying the bracing air of prosperity.   One word can describe its condition, it is solid.   With such prosperous centres —  and there are others — as a foundation, the future of the state cannot be gloomy.

Early Days —   Mount Barker is rich in historical associations.   It was intimately connected with the foundation of the state, for a mistake in its first designation was one of the reasons which led to a close examination of the country east of St. Vincent's Gulf.   Capt. Sturt, on his first voyage down the Murray in 1829, saw the mount to the westward, and it was marked on his plan 'Mount Lofty.'  A curious discrepancy existed between the place assigned to Mount Lofty by Flinders in 1S02 and by Sturt in lS2fl. and this difference between tile result of the observations by such careful and conscientious explorers led to a nsorc definite examination of the country to the north of Cape Jervis and ultimately to the selection of South Australia as a place iit to become a British province.   Lieut-Gen. King, the Governor of New South Wales, instructed Capt. Col  Barker, an officer of the 39th Dorset regiment then returning to New South Wales from King George's Sound, to inspect the coastal country in the neighborhood of Cape Jervis, make a particular search for evidence of the mouth of the Murray in that direction, and to fix precisely the location of Mount Lofty.   It was when on this journey that Capt. Barker was murdered by the blackes, and the mount was named after him.   Capt. Barker coasted up the gulf until he got beyond Marino.   Then a party, consisting of the captain, the surgeon (Dr. Davis), the purser (Mr. Kent), two soldiers, and two prisoners, landed.  They journeyed over the shoulder of Mount Lofty and on through densely wooded country until on April 20, 1831, they came in sight of an another mountain, which from a distance bore a singular resemblance to Mount Lofty.   This afforded an explanation of the discrepancy between the two explorers.   Sturt, when he became aware of the fact, altered his map, and named the hill he had seen from the Murray after his old comrade.   The travellers took much more comprehensive surveys from Mount Barker than they obtained from any other point and their observations enabled them to see that in the neighbourhood there was land well fitted for cultivation.   Capt. Barker was thus the first white man to ascend the mount.   Next day, after swimming across the Murray near the mouth, he was murdered by the blacks, and his body was never recovered.   A monument to his memory stands in the town.   It bears the following inscription:—  Erected to the Memory ot Capt. G-Uet Barker, Of H.M. 39th Regiment of Foot, who Discovered the District and Mount which hears his name. He was killed by blacks on the 30th April, 1S31, while endeavouring to ascertain tlie communication between Lake Alexandrina and Encounter Bay

The First Settlement ---   Prior to its settlement by Europeans, Mount Barker was inhabited by wandering savages.  Living in good country they were a fine race, but the tribe has passed out of existence.  Unfortunately it has left nothing behind of its history.  Even the native name of the place is a matter of doubt, but the late Capt. Davison, in his diary, gave it a-? Yaktanga.  However, no one has handed down its meaning, for in the vocabularies of native names of Williams, 3 Foyers, Tieehchnaiin, and Shurmann, and Moorchouee tffcre is no reference to it.  Through all the early histories there are references to the good land in the district, and soon after the colony was proclaimed people sought out that locality for places in which to make their homes.   Long before the survey of the present township the mount was invariably described by early explorers when recounting their trips from Adelaide to the lake, and also by the overlanders who used it as a landmark and cnmmnc place when travelling hither with stock from Sydney and Port Phillip.   In 1S.77 Sir John Morphett and Messrs. J. B. Hack and Samuel Stephens visited the locality.   On December 27, 1837, Messrs. Robert Cock, W. Finlayson, A. Wyatt. and G. Barton ascended the mount, and the next year the late Mr. W. B. Randell and Mr. J. B. Fliepherdson climbed to the top.   Dealing with the creation of the township the following clipped from the columns of The KegMei,  of December 7, 1839, is interesting: — ''it is proposed to form a township at the well known station first selected in the Mount Barker district by Mr. Coghill, from New South Wales.  The locality is central, being within two miles of the Mount, near the fast well-watered spot on the Sydney read between Adelaide and the jVfu.iT.iy.   It is a good day's stage from Crafers Inn, on the Tiers, through German Town (Hahndorf). and an easy ride from town.   It is surrounded by extensive sheep and cattle runs, on which a great proportion of the stock brought overland is kept for sale.   As the climate is salubrious and the elevation is considerable it is a most comfortable spot for summer residences.   In those days persons paying to the proper officers in England or the colony the price of 4,000 acres of land had the right to call for the survey of any compact district to an extent not exceeding 15.000 acre?.   Under the system, Mr. W. H. Dutton on January 11, 1830, paid down £4,000, hadti special survey, and took up 4.000 acres of the country, which included Mount Barker and its surroundings.   It was then Messrs. Finniss & Hack's cattle station.   Other gentlemen concerned in the transaction were Capt. Finniss and Messrs. Duncan McFarlane and Dutton.   Thirteen days later, Mr. M. Smilie secured a special survey for 4,000 acres of the country to the north of Mount Barker.  Once the ted was opened for settlement there were plenty of persons ready to occupy it.   Rb capabilities had lnog be?7i known.   Sturt, on his second visit to the state in August. 1838, said the country 'far exceeded in richness any portion of New South Wales he had ever seen.   Blocks were eagerly purchased, and £1,000 for SC acres was readily paid.

Pioneer Settlers —    Mr. J. W. Preiss, who pegged out the survey is still living in the neighbourhood, occupying a place at Hay Valley, and he finds opportitiutics to still do good work for the town with which he was so early connected.  Mr. J. Dunn arrived tiicrc in 1840, and Mr. T. G. Paltridgc, the founder of the larpe business of the Paltridge family, in 1&7.  Among the first settlers werej Messrs. F. C. Smith (who was a partner of the late Hon. J. G. Ramsay).  E. Akiy, .r. Kain, A. Bell, and J. FraJiic. Three or four of Mr. Frame's family are still growing wheat in the district; a grandson, who is one of the best farmers in the district, has just entered for the show a collection of 57 samples of cereals, including 47 of wheat.  His farm sIiowk that he is carrying out the best traditions of his family. Friend Cleggett was among those who early gathered there.  His is a much respected name, and. his sons and grandsons follow in his foot steps.  Mr. T. Carting was also among the original settlers.

--- The Old Wheat Days ---   The late Mr. Dunn left behind him many interesting stories of the early days. He once described his first impressions of the [-laeo in the following words:— ''When we (his son was wilih him) came over what h known as the Windmill Hill, and saw the country around and ahead of us. £ tliought it was the loveliest place I had ever seen. It looked to me very much like the parks that I had seen in England, and I could not but think that we would see some gentleman's mansion, and be told we ivere trespassing. Ail these unsightly j ivatercourses here now were not to be seen '. ihon— just watorholes here and there, which lesembled artificial fishponds. When we got j to where Mount Barker is now we noticed in oui1 trad; a .tremendous mushroom. I ivas wearing one of the old-fashioned , t'rench bclltoppers with a very broad . brim, and measured it with this- It just covered the brim of ray headgear, and the stem was nearly as big as my arm. I said, Why. land that will produce mushrooms like this will produce wheat if the article is only put into iho ground,' and singularly enough, if you measure 1,000 yards square fromVhere that mushroom stood, you wi' find that the owner of the land in after rears took first prize in the London Ex hibition of. 1S51 for wheat grown in that ray soil.' Mount Barker was scon noted for tlie excellence of its product, and L'losc by was gathered the wheat which in 1S51 took the prize against all the world The trophy now stands in the Art. Gal lery, and an inscription on if shows that Lhb grain was sent by Mr. Robert Daven iwrt. of Battunpi, and was grown by Messrs. A. Bell, B. Callaby, R. Davenport. T. Frame, Montieth & Co., A. Pethick, and i I. Sliakcs. Mr. Dunn erected his first mill ! for grinding wheat at Hay Valley. It was a. primitive affair, and depended on ; the wind as a motive power. 'Sometimes,' remarked an eld colonist, 'we used to have to wait a month for our flour, according is the wind blew or did not blow-' The next mill was in the township, and was srected in 1S44. It still stands. lxJaring its modest inscription of 'J. D., 1S44,' but in its last days it. is used as a store. The iverage yield of wheat in the early days was 30 bushels t-i tht ion, but prices j fluctuated. Once Mr. Dunn paid £300 for ] 300 bushels. The thought of it must make | the inoufJis of present day farmers water, j The greatest fluctuation in price was when ! ane Saturday night Mr. Dunn sold tionr For £60 per ton and on the following Mon rlay mornina for £30. That was in the | Victorian gold-digging days. The Mount j Ikrker mill had a long, honourable career. I At the time the Bremer country was opened ; there was an immense stack of wheat in j the yard, and for 12 months the grinding | of tlie stones went on without ceasing right and rlay. The district was a wonder ful place for whea.t. then, and the virgin oil needed only to be tickled by the plough and it would smile with a golden harvest. The land, however could not bear the strain for ever, and 20 ycara ag-i wheat farming pure and simple faded away hefore the advent of the farmer and gra zier, t.he stockbreeder, and the dairyman.

The First Viceregal Visit    From the diary of Mr. Edward May, who. with his father and other members of his family, arrived in the ship Anna Kobertsou, and imancdiately there-wter settled at Mount Barker, the following is gleaned:— 'November 14, lS42.-Fairiicld Farm was honoured 'to-day by a visit from the Governor, Capt. (afterwards Sir George) Grey, who had been Duncan McFarlajie's guest on a little trip to Mount Barker. McFarlane, according to promise, brought the Governor here who seemed to take a lively interest in ihe agricultural proceedings of the colonists. He rode yesterday through the District of BtUhawiah, ?nnd to-dav intended on his return to Ade laide to see a little of the country this v-ny. We were at lunch at the time of tlie notification of his arrival, but in an astonishingly short space of time our little parlour was cleared and put into prim, visitable order. O«r illustrious guest, with Mr. McFarlane. was received in our sitting room, and as they had only just breakfast ed they declined the wine and cake offered them, the Governor remarking that wine did not ajrree with him when taken before dinner, yet he considerately took a sip- by way of politely taking off the raw edge of a^rcfusal. He was exceedingly affable,, and after a little conversation took a walk denvn the garden. Unfortunately it rained all the rime. Notwithstanding this neither the garden nor the gardeners .had any cause to complain of remiscness on the part of the Governor in seeing what was to be seen, lie was particularly attracted by ,thp frag rant honeysuckle (woodbine), thon in full bloom, and begged a few flowers, as he said that Mrs. Grey would be delighted wit'h this truly English (home) flower. Although it was so wet the Gora-nor took a great interest in all. he saw. and was pleased with his visit to Mount Barker. The pro gress the colonists were making in the matter of agriculture impressed him favour ably, and seemed to be Iwyond 'his expecta tions, and before leaving lie stated tliat, in his opinion, the people in England would bo astonished 'to Jearn of the progress we shall have made in connection with agri cultural pursuits Avitliin i'he nest four years or so.'

Fifty Years Ago   The old colonist who landed there in the early days have interesting stories to tell, of their initial experiences at Mount Barker.  One who started work there in 184S has given to the world many stories of 50 years ago.  He said:— 'The journey from Adelaide by bullock dray was not n,mte so speedy as by our present rate of travel on the southern railway line, but we did manage to get here in two long days and three longer nights.  Our team consisted of 12 fine aninmals but we got bogged and bogged again, and it would have been amnring — had we not been concerned in it to have watched the antics of the lem sters as they sought first to help a brother in distress and then to set themselves at liberty from a cpiajmire.  Teajmstrrs never ventured far from home without an axe and a spado with which to cut their way or to set free their bogged wheels, and it was not an uncommon experience then to find the track blocked by an uprooted tree.  Mount Barker consisted of about a dozen houses, three of which were of stone, while it boasted two stores, a post office (daily delivery, brought by horseman from town), police station and Courthouse (now known as the old police station), two churches (Catholic and Presbyterian), and two hotels (the best bedrooms of one of them now being a barber's shop, but the hotel ims long been demolished).  Some of tlic how-es were hardly worthy of the r-amc, being built of sods of earth about a foot wide, and of varying lengths and thickness placed on top of one another — there were several of this sort — and the roof was made of bark, boughs, or anything else available.  The first house erected was that of Mr. Duncan McFarlane (of Finnis, Dutton, and McFarlane, who owned nearly all the land about), and this build iine is now to be seen in Mr. W. RichHison's orchard.' 

A Native Battle   Of course there were plenty of aborigines here, then about 300 of them, known as the Mount Barker tribe.  They were very amicable, but rather light-fingered, although they could easily be induced to work for the whites, who treated them very well.  The camp was located on the flat, and the blacks did not altogether see the force of being intruded on by the white people, although they did not openly repent a visitation. Some of the men were fine, big fellows, and 'old man Robert', the chief, was a splendid specimen.  I remember a war between the Mount Barker and Wellington tribes over one of our blacks eloping with a Lakeside girl.  The Wellingtonians came up after their 'dark angel', and several days previous to their arrival the local aborigines scented their approach.  The battle was fought on 'Cro' Nest' Hill, and spears, boomerangs, waddies, and bark shields were very plentiful.  Just as things were getting exciting a woman came for the police.  So enragred was the husband that as he ran, he threw a spear at her, after which he seized the pointed end and pulled the weapon clear through her body.  I believe she died from the effects.  One of the warriors who was particularly active got speared in the side, the point breaking off in his flesh, and the manner in which the lubras used to place one foot each side of the wound and jump up and down to cause the piece to work out was something awful.  The police restored order between the tribes, and the young woman was allowed to return to her people.  All the while she was here she howled piteously.  The natives tipped their spears with the teeth of animals or bones.  In the winter they used to go to the lakes, being allowed by the other tribes to occupy certain parts for fishing and fowling.

South Australian Register - Saturday 1 February 1840

Fine Wooled Sheep

We believe there is in the colony a very large proportion of the finest bred sheep of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land.   Many of the rams and ewes from Mr Archer's celebrated flocks, as well as a choice selection of the best breeds of New South Wales, have been imported.   We have also had, direct from England, numerous importations from Lord Western, and the the great care and attention that is being paid to the quality of the sheep by our colonists is likely to assure South Australian wool a first rate place in the home market.   We are informed that the large flocks recently brought overland by Capt Finniss are of a very superior breed; and indeed we remember that they were so described in the New South Wales papers when giving an account of their sale.   The following letter from one of our oldest and most successful colonists, John Hallet, Esq, J.P. on the subject, to Capt Finniss has been handed to us, and we willingly give it a place in our columns :—

Adelaide., Jan. 31, 1840.   Dear Sir, — Having had an opportunity of inspecting the wool that has just arrived in town from your overland wether flocks imported this season, connected with a coversation I have had with our overseer, who has personally inspected them, I have much pleasure in expressing my opinion that the introduction   of your sheep will be of great service to the colony, inasmuch as we shall be enabled to produce a fine long-stapled wool, and a good carcase at the same time, which will be found essential to profitable sheep farming in this colony.   The wool that I have inspected is deficient in yolk, arising either from the fatigue of the overland journey, or I think more probably from the sheep having been washed in brackish or aulmy water, which will injure it materially in its present state, both as regards the feel of the wool, appearance, and the great deficiency of weight occasioned thereby; but I have no   hesitation in saying that there are few sheep in the colony that possess the qualitites of fineness of fibre, length of staple, and uniformity in the flocks, combined with a good carcase, equal to those imported by you, and I cannot give a stronger proof of my opinion than the fact of our having purchased a few rams and ewes from you for the express purpose of improving our flocks, by which I consider we shall have gained in two years what otherwise might have taken us five to produce, and in the meatime will add considerably to our profit.  ----   I am, &c., John Hallet.

South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register - Saturday 13 April 1839

The New Settlement and Town of Port Lincoln

Supply of Provisions  — Fresh beef and mutton are selling at 1s. 3d. per pound, and this price will be reduced to 10d. or 1s. when the cattle contracted to be delivered by Dr. Imlay arrive.   It is intended also to drive a herd from the Adelaide district overland in the course of a few weeks, and we have just been informed that Capt. Finniss, whose practical knowledge of the matter few of our readers will dispute, will undertake to deliver stock from Sydney at Port Lincoln at the same price he would charge at Adelaide.   The supply of fresh fish of all the best kinds is also abundant within the Port, and in all directions throughout the Gulf.   Capt. Flinders states that while at Memory Cove "a seine was hauled on the beach with such success that every man of the two ships had two meals of fish, and some to spare for salting."   While the Cygnet lay in Spalding Cove in December, 1836, Capt. Lipson, R. N., the Harbour Master of Port Adelaide, caught daily, in an hour or two, with the hand line, a supply of fish sufficient for the consumption of his own large family and servants, and plenty also to spare for the crew of the ship; and, the gentlemen who have just arrived speak of the abundant quantities of fine snapper, rock cod, mackerel, &c., which are obtained with the greatest ease by any one who can procure a boat and time to catch them.   This supply of cheap and wholesome food on the spot is an important consideration, affecting the price of labor and the expence of living, and one which, of all others, Adelaide most suffers from.   Fish in that place is never to be had in the state which the gourmand would call perfectly fresh; and then at from 6d. to 9d. per pound. In Port Lincoln it may be caught for nothing, or purchased alive from the boats at 1d.per pound.  —   (From the Port Lincoln Herald, April 10)

The Advertiser - Monday 13 December 1948

S.A. Company, John Dunn

Reference to the winding up here of the famous South Australian Company reminds Miss Leonora Dunn (34 Austral Terrace, Malvern) of the link between it and her grandfather John Dunn, the noted miller.   He had constructed single handed a windmill at Hay Valley in 1841 which would go only when the wind was in a certain direction.   As he saw only a bare living could be made from this, he hired himself to John Ridley as engineer from October 1842 until 1844.

Miss Dunn quotes from his memoirs: — During that time I helped to build the first reaper, and was the first to get the machine to work rightly in the field.   My hours with Mr. Ridley were from 6 a.m. to 7 or 8 pm,  according to the amount of work to be done.   We were never particular to an hour or two then.

The South Australian Company built a steam mill where the company's bridge now stands (Hackney road) while I working for Mr. Ridley.   After I had finished work on the reaper, Ridley hired this mill, and asked me to put it into working order for him.   The machinery was very old fashioned: the engine was of the grasshopper pattern, the boiler egg-shaped.

I got through some of the heaviest and most difficult work of my life before it was started.   Here I was when my own engine for my mill arrived in 1844.   To induce me to come to Mount Barker, Capt. Finnis, Mr. McFarlane and Mr. Dutton each gave me a block of land.

It was at Mount Barker that John Dunn erected his first steam mill imported from England through Mr. A. L. Elder, brother of Sir Thomas Elder.