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Transcribed & translated by Lothar BRASSE

To return to:  Liebelt-Faehrmann, Lothar BRASSE summary, Listerman part 2



He first came out to South Australia on the Princess Louise along with FAEHRMANN & GLADIGAU + the Berlin Revolution....

Lothar BRASSE went to the ..... in Berlin to obtain a copy of the original book written in German by LISTERMANN in.....  He then spent many months translating it into English.  

I have just completed translating a German book written by Carl's fellow passenger - Gustav Listemann. Although Listemann doesn't mention Carl by name, he infers at the work some of his fellow carpenter passengers had to put up with upon their arrival in SA.

L Listemann 1851 Berlin. About his 9month stay in Adelaide built a house in Fullarton.


The family names mentioned in this article include:  







Sadly, as I have found from my own experience, and since my return, many others [that] have been afflicted by the 'migration fever'.  They can hardly be dissuaded by someone with first-hand experiences from carrying out their plan. I doubt therefore that the following pages will be of any use to them, unless of course they can be forewarned from my miserable experiences under which I suffered so that they maybe protected.

To prevent any such ill decisions, I write these warning which also acts to appease the wishes of my dear friends.  I therefore found it necessary to communicate my adventu4es during my travel as well as my nine months stay in Australia and thereby make it public. If, by the telling of my experiences with my realistic recollections I am successful to dissuade those who like myself wanted to leave the fatherland wth induced conviction, I should be pleased.

I want to attest that it is much better here at home than in the glorified distant land.iThose unhappy about their situation and their current circumstances here and those wishing to fulfil any shortcomings may indeed be tempted to seek the benefits from the much fabled treasures overseas.  Their eyes will then however be opened wide to the blessings once so close to them, but alas were not appreciated but will one day be valued at a great price.

Decision to emigrate, realisation of the same despite some difficulties, departure, departure from Hamburg aboard the Princess Louise, a migration ship. It was on a November evening in the year 1848, at a meeting amongst friends and acquaintances when an announcement was made by a local doctor that he would emigrate to Australia next year.   This then also stirred the air within me to leave the homely hearth and to seek the distant fortunes.  Upon my closer enquiries I found out that on the '​Leipzig Strasse' there was already a company founded and the names of Drs Muecke and Schomburgk were mentioned in that they could give me further information. 

Immediately the thought of emigrating refused to go away as I built air castles in my fertile imagination.  Soon the wonders of the oceans - something that I had never seen - materialised I front of me.  Soon the images of beautiful districts flickered around me, soon I saw myself as a colonist surrounded by rich blessings, reaping the fruits of my diligence and labour.  Soon my mind played thousands of adventures; in short, I was full of enthusiasm [hooked] and hurried with quickened strides towards the absurdly feverish realisation of emigration.  My family with whom I discussed my inner thoughts initially thought it a joke, but they too were soon infected, and acquainted themselves with the thoughts of distant lands even if, as they stipulated, it would only be for a short while.

I then went a step further and visited a meeting held in 'Leipzig Strasse', but what I heard there caused little desire to pursue my dreams.  They were still arguing whether the destination was to be Chile or Texas, Brazil or Australia.  When however, I heard that Schomburgk's brother, the renowned traveller had made the recommendation to settle on the Swan River in Western Australia as well as having the opportunity to purchase a substantial piece of land there for relatively little, I therefore made the suggestion that we should form a company with the express purpose to emigrate to Australia.

Schomburgk and Mueke who had long made up their mind to leave Europe happily embraced this suggestion.  We quickly began to meet regularly in a pub in 'Krausenstrasse' near the 'Doehofsplatz' which would soon be well-visited because we had widely circulated our intention using flyers so as to attract anyone thinking about emigrating to join us.  We next concerned ourselves to collect as much knowledge as possible about the condition of the land but news about the colony was very scarce and mostly gleaned from reports in English literature.  Despite this however, a plan was made to obtain a tract of land from the West Australian Government for use by our company to built a colony there.  The relationship between individual workers and financial income was to be set and only 5 years after founding the colony could a request for separation be made.  Luckily this plan crumbled soon after its inception.  If it had gone ahead, it would have caused unspeakable amount of misfortune, disaster, unhappiness and bad luck because, apart form the Germans who appear to me to be very unsuitable to successfully carry out such a communal undertaking. We would most probably, with all the talk never get to found such a colony, because I think most p.3 would, after being taken there at the expense of the company soon obtain other means of accommodation since any binding agreement here has no legal status over there.

Perth, Swan River and the whole of Western Australia was given up as a result of unfavourable news we obtained from a property owner in the vicinity of Osterode, Hanover district, who had lived in Western Australia for a long time.  According to his explanation and although the clime there was very health, the land was mainly suitable for sheep farming, a claim that was later confirmed. I still remember listening intently to the pleasurable and romantic stories about the life of shepherds there which our speaker must have fabricated. Of course, we sat there comfortably with our filled jugs, in a well heated room and many of us could not then dream that three quarter of a year later, when forced through hardship we would lead a life that was in no way as good as we had imagined back home.

In the distant lands the emigrant is inclined to look at everything in rosy lights. He over estimates the good whilst when anything evil is announced it is seen as insubstantial, so that in his comparative assessment they hardly deserve consideration. It should be the opposite: he should be anxious and studious in his enquiries about the land he wishes to take up residence, to investigate and only believe half of the fanciful praises. This would either take him away from his decision or, if he should carry it out, to safe guard him from many bitter disappointments and to give him the strength to overcome any difficulties he mav encounter under happier circumstances.

So, we looked away from Western Australia and instead focussed more easterly, towards Adelaide in South Australia.p.4 Reports had praised this wonderful and fast developing colony and for years Germans had been settling there. The papers reported in glowing terms of the fertile soils there, land was reputedly cheap (1 acre = 1 3/5 Magdeburg Morgen, 1-pound Sterling= 6

Thaler and 20 Groschen) In several letters the praise was also great. According to them the climate was so healthy that there was hardly any sickness and those with chest complaints were soon cured from their ailments and yes it had such an exhilarating power that even those suffering from psychological ills would also be cured. It was said that here was an abundance of well-paid work and that ships were often met far from shore so that a suitable tradesman could be snapped up. Hospitality, loyalty and honesty reigned in the whole land and the afflictions of a rotting and decaying Europe had not yet materialized there.

Most of this information was coming from the mouth of a minister of religion living near Berlin who had apparently lived in several places in Australia. I can still remember his words: "Australia is a land where milk and hone flows and to which one is tempted to relocate paradise, for which proposition I beg god to find fault, but alas, there is no fault." I cannot believe that this man, a servant of god's word, a messenger of truth, tried to deceive us so deliberately. In his erring and self-deception, he was not to know of course that any pleasant impressions one may experience during a short stay in a foreign land, would not be authoritative enough to convince others to spend their whole lives there.

His favourable impressions may have been boldened because he only occasionally ventured from his 'South Seafarer', on which he as a spiritual leader visited all sorts of places from Bremen, went on land and compared the life there with that of life on board ship. I don't want p.5 to make any accusations even though his enthusiastic and hish praise emboldened many. Who then wouldn't feel, as we did, happy and blessed to soon be able to live in such a blessed land? How eager we were to listen to these eloquent speakers on a weekly basis pronouncing all sorts of splendour. How they praised even the insignificant elevating it to meaningful worth. One of the letters said "I look out from my window of my house onto the wide ocean". How romantic!

In another: "the water melons and peaches are so abundant here that they feed them to the pigs. Soup is prepared from the former which when one adds vinegar tastes just like wine soup." How divine!  In a third: "the mineral riches of the country are massive, the shares of the Burra mine rose from 5 pound Sterling to 200 Pound Stirling". What prospects to get rich then, especially when everything I find on my property is unquestionably mine. Enough! Anyone indecisive was now resolute and those with the slightest concerns, abandoned them. Anyone with difficulties to join us, strengthened his resolve, felt victorious and overcame them. More and more declared their willingness to go to the promised land with us and soon we saw enough numbers to seriously progress with our plans. Whilst I went to Bremen, Muecke and Schomburgk went to Hamburg to investigate the best way of moving over to Australia.

During my trip there my resolve to emigrate was strengthened even further not only because Captain Laun, who had visited Adelaide on a number of occasions spoke highly of the country, but a close relative had promised to support me in my undertaking.  M. and S. brought the news that the house of Blass and Schomburgk would, under favourable conditions underwrite the transport, and so our company decided to p.6 accept their offer.  The 'Princess Louise' was to be the ship to take us across the seas and after a description of her, we should consider ourselves lucky that this excellent ship was to take us. The cabin was likened to a lounge where comfort and elegance were synonymous. The captain, a respectful man, was acclaimed an inspiration of his class. Even the price to travel was acceptable. 76 Prussian Thaler for mid deck, 150 Thaler for a cabin of which sum two thirds had to be paid at registration and the remainder shortly before departure.

Now the first difficult and unpleasant issues associated with emigration arose, which as we approached our departure were mounting up and I am sure that if any one intent on emigrating were to know of this problem beforehand, he would have been discouraged from his plans. So, when the intending migrant overcomes his first problem he becomes more resolute in his resolve and the more hurdles he encounters and the more difficult they become, a picture of unbridled happiness enters his soul giving him added strength to then usurp his many victims with glee. Old, common and well-known relationships have to be discarded, the necessary resources attained, the unnecessary sold and the seemingly most essential procured. One sacrifice after another is demanded, one loss follows the another, whilst on the other hand more and more expenses accumulate. I am speaking here mainly of family men, foolish enough, and even if only affected by a low circle of influence, to give up their familiar comforts and with their family to rush headlong to embrace some perceived luck overseas.

You poor devils, those who overstretched their means and have only enough to cover their and their family's fare there, as well as some reserve to facilitate the first furnishings in the new land, you will be exposed to many disappointments. Beware, to just give up even the most miserable bread, for you might long for it at a later stage in a most painful way. You poor housewives, do not succumb to your husband's demands to drag you over there. Think carefully about what you are leaving behind and consider the inner pain that awaits you and of the hour of damnation in which you consented. Heed your first pain, step back and wait so that you may be spared from irreversible disasters. The first hints of pain already appear when you cannot take with you your goods, your property, your household implements which then have to be sold. Some of your possessions which hold dear memories for you must then go under the auctioneer's hammer only to be sold for a pittance to a new owner.

The cradle of your children at which you have spent so many happy and anxious moments, the table at which you and your family had many satisfying meals, all this you have to leave behind. But should you not wish to part with these goods so that it may accompany you, then you will have a lot of trouble too. It would be expensive and become a burden to vou and eventually pressured by hardship, you will be forced to give it up. You will fear the hour when you are torn from friends and relatives, perhaps for the rest of your lives, fear the hour when you are alone to depend on your own without a sympathetic heart in which you can confide your worries to and in which you may find comfort and solace. It will be too late when vou appreciate the goods, the irreplaceable treasures you have given up, when the cold and alien land has adopted you, where only gold can buy you friendliness, where love is only had deceitfully and perhaps only as a pretext to rob vou of your very last. Let yourselves be warned through my own experiences, but I fear that even I am preaching to deaf ears, as I had found myself and how little those that are affected by the emigration fever are reluctant to listen to denouncing voices.

Even I was warned. Even I was made aware of the uncertain fate I wanted to approach. "Stay in your land and feed yourself honestly, do not throw out your muddy waters, before you have better,- the penny applies most where it was struck." These golden rules of life were also given to me but alas, I did not listen. After I had left my job at a local high school which apart from giving me my daily bread, it also offered me dignity, respect and love. I took my first fatal step as I had discussed earlier which, as it turned out later, was also to be my undoing. some of my assets were cashed in at a loss, furnishings sold and the rest included with the goods we thought necessary in the new land, or that we could sell some of it there profitably. Boxes were packed and on 19 March I left with my family after a painful farewell from dear friends and comforted with their well wishes we left Berlin to join our companions in Hamburg as we had arranged. I took a deep breath. The last few weeks were hardly my own so I thought that from here on, things would get better. But I was wrong.

Arriving in Hamburg the weather was subdued. Some complaints were becoming louder and soon our much-praised harmony and unity was in danger. The character of the society had already changed not only because new passengers were being accepted in Hamburg, but also because new faces had arrived from Berlin which we had never seen at our earlier meetings there. Our ship was not ready to sail and we had to wait a few days longer. As much as it suited some of our group to enjoy the city's rich and varied offerings, others complained about the expensive life at the lodgings and were less able to afford any additional, yet necessary expenses.

Most of the cases and boxes destined to be stored on mid-deck had to be re-packed because they were considered too big for the limited space and some meant for the lower deck just couldn't be accommodated. On the ship itself there prevailed a Babylonian confusion. Carpenters were still busy partitioning the spaces, there were boxes small and large, all mixed up. Passengers ran around looking and asking to secure their belongings or just wanted to make themselves comfortable. At last, blankets, mattresses and tin dishes were brought on board and distributed to all passengers. New expenditures, meant more disharmony which lead to more complaints.

The latter was especially amplified by the explanation by the ship's owners that it was not possible to stow all our boxes on board and that a portion of them had to be left behind and to be transported by a ship leaving at a later stage. Even I was willing to agree that some of my goods could remain. I did this without knowing that my generosity would be abused in that they decided to retain seven of my boxes, which on reflection never made the arduous trip to Australia because I found them again 1 3/4 years later in storage in Hamburg. Amongst all the confusion however the 'Princess Louise' eventually departed.

It was towed by a steam tug to Hamburg to Glueckstadt where we dropped anchor again to take fresh water on board. Most of us left the fatherland jubilantly but I must admit that I couldn't entirely participate in the triumphal happiness, as a deep melancholy gripped me. Did I inwardly anticipate the disappointments awaiting us? Was it the parting from the hearth of our homeland that was tugging at my heartstrings? I was disgusted by my constant innermost screams. I searched for distractions and comfort by working hard so as to rid myself of these dark thoughts. These thoughts constantly threatened to overpower me but luckily there was plenty to do because I didn't just have to look after myself, but also my large, family. There was for example the preparation of our bedding for the night and a whole lot of objects had to be stored as far as our restricted space would allow us. Furthermore, our boxes in mid-deck had to be secured before we entered the high seas because every thrust of a wave could throw them about.

At last the stomach announced itself. Of course, the prospects to satisfy its needs looked grim. The ships provisions weren't yet organized and the ships food was not to my taste. Happy were those that took some bread on board from Hamburg, one had thought of all sorts of issues and as so often happens, made no allowance for the obvious. will overlook the many unsavory issues that confronted us which started at the Elbe where an argument erupted between the captain and first helmsman. We would of course have more of the same, with greater intensity all of which of course are part of a voyage on a migrant ship but in our case, things became more heated, due to special circumstances. I should at this point describe in more detail the inner workings of a migrant ship so that the reader can have a better picture of life on board. Those rooms intended to take on passengers are the cabins and the mid deck.

The former is found on deck at the rear of the ship. Most however, as on the Princess Louise, the mid-deck was on the one level and compartments only separated by timber partitions. The mid-deck takes up the most space of the ship's central portion. I say mid-central because at the front is the accommodation for the sailors. The mid-deck of our ship had an approximate length of 60 feet, a width of 20 to 24 feet and was not quite 7 feet high. Apart from the main hatch two other smaller hatches located at the front and rear led down to the mid-deck by means of stairs consisting of 10 steps each. The berths are fixed to the side walls, that is, sturdy bed frames 6-foot-long and 6 to

7-foot-wide, 2 above another with a boarded partition separating the next beds. They are open to the inside of the ship and fitted with only a light curtain. These berths are meant for 4, sometimes 5 people, meaning that everyone is tightly squashed next to each other. The space between the rows of berths serves to hold the luggage which on our ship was so crammed with boxes, suit cases, coat sacks, travelling bags, baskets, eating, drinking and other dishes so that only a narrow passage remained on both sides. It was so narrow that when two people approached each other they could hardly pass. Only a small amount of light reaches this area, being partly from the open hatches and partly from three sided pieces of glass which perforate the deck. This space accommodated around 148 people. Although many went on deck when the weather was reasonable, space there was also limited due to the large amount of rigging. Space on deck was also taken up by water kegs, meat containers, boxes and crates, so that it was hard to find a quiet spot especially when one also has to consider not to be in the way of the crew. In bad weather the deck provides no protection which we then had to find in mid deck and when the hatches were also closed to keep the rain at bay, it was the heat and 'mephitic haze' that made it unbearable.  Early at 6am it begins to get lively on board. The deck is washed and all objects there are generously doused with sea water of which, some passengers may also get their fair share.  At 7 am we get coffee (breakfast) at 12 noon lunch which consists of potatoes (as long as they last), legumes, sour cabbage (sauerkraut), pearl barley, grout, pudding and beef or pork. Of the former we got 4and the latter 3 times a week. Tea was at 7 pm.

The distribution of food was managed by one of our committee members who devised a distribution system in which the master baker, the so-called 'Backmeister' was responsible for his group of people we called the 'Back' (bake). Each 'Back' had between 12 and 18 persons or buddies, representing around 4 berths which were then responsible for the further food distribution amongst themselves funny.  The office of 'Backmeister was a very unpleasant one and the participant was always glad when his week was over. This was because not only did it require a lot of effort to keep his buddies of his 'Back' happy, but there was always someone complaining. Furthermore, during stormy weather it was often difficult to deliver the food unscathed. Many a hapless 'Backmeister' fell spread eagled with all the food landing at the feet of one of his unlucky, yet still hungry 'Back' buddy. Our meals were generally quite good considering the provisions available, but here,  the initial preparations and groundwork was quite bad. Since the Princess Louise was the first ship its owner had fitted out for transporting emigrants, he no doubt wanted to distinguish himself with the choice of provisions, and it can't be denied that he did what he could in that the provisions were in abundant supply as well as being of a high standard.

In this regard there wouldn't be a complaint if only they were better administered. According to our contract however it was not the captain who had the overall authority over the provisions but a committee designated from our company which was responsible for a number of bad decisions. In one instance for example things were so badlv packed that despite serious attempts made by several passengers no objects or orderly system could be found. Secondly it was verv difficult to instill some overall control which caused some discontent within our company itself. One of our committee members declared himself the spokesperson for the owner and felt obliged to side with him in regard to any pending compensation. The distribution of Butter (1/2 pound per person) p.13 sugar (1/4 pound), wine (3/16 Quart) happened on a weekly basis. Water (¾ Quart) daily and bread or ships toast according to need. The last two items seemed the most important and often gave cause for disconcert. For the water, many bad kegs were chosen which after a short time turned out to be sour, turbid or thick like oil, often fouled and smelling rancid.

The bread was packed in sacks not kegs. It was stored atop water kegs and it naturally followed that a large proportion got wet and hence ruined so that in 'Rio Janeiro' (sic.) we had to take on new provisions. The biggest problems however came from the poorly equipped kitchen. On other ships the ship's cook also cooks for the passengers whereas on ours, a separate kitchen was installed and a former bricklayer engaged as cook. The result was that on more than one occasion our food was burnt. When after repeated complaints the cook was sacked, a carpenter, then a baker, a butcher and locksmith all had a go at cooking for which they earned our gratitude for at least trying and taking on such an annoying and frustrating task. If we had any further complaints regarding our food, the captain took great pity and went to great efforts to mend our discontent by offering - at our cost, not just sausages, ham and cheese, but he also pacified us with spirits such as: Madeira, Port, Medoc, Cognac, Genever and Kirschliqueur all lay at our disposal. The offer had its effect on our unrest and disquiet and the demand for liquor was so big that loans had to be taken out. The accumulated credit of these was so great however that at the end of the voyage many passengers became even more embittered after discovering that their means were severely diminished.

Naturally the Captain went about setting a 'good' example, so that after one early morning he began with a stiff 'Bitters' p. 14 he also commanded: "Adolph ( that was the name of the steward) Cognac and water or 'Genever and water which he repeatedly requested throughout the day. Furthermore, the captain never missed the evening's punch-bowl, unless something urgent came up. The treatment of passengers on migrant ships is best understood when one considers that in the eves of the captain and most of the crew the passengers are merely cargo or sometimes even less than cargo. Cargo is at least treated with some degree of care so as not to damage it, whereas that same attention is in no way equally applied to passengers.

The emigrant is seen as a sort of outcast from society who at home was up to no good and one from whom to expect the worst. We have made this observation on the 'Princess Louise' but I have also heard that the treatment on other emigrant ships by their captains to be most civil and praiseworthy and so I had better make some exceptions, considering that I had got to know some rather snobby sailors myself. Our sailors present themselves as friendly and amenable even if most have onlv had some education in their past, whereas others have gained their extensive knowledge from their stay at various places like America. With others it's as a result of life's amazing experiences so that they acquired an education that should never be classed as poor. Praiseworthy mention should also be made of their willingness to share their provisions with those in need and yes, through their care and generosity have saved the life of a very sick man. To be very sick on board is a terrible fate bestowed on a person on a migrant ship - where is the peace and comfort? Where is the suitable nourishment?   Where in deed is the medicine and medical support?

Although there should be a doctor on every ship, it is quite common for an unsuitable person with no knowledge to be entrusted with the health of hundreds in return for a free passage. Pity the unlucky ones who are stricken by a serious evil and when nature or humans don't come to his aid he has little hope. Yet still, illnesses are not uncommon. Those accustomed to a totally different life style, the daily routine of solid meals without physical exertion, the restricted accommodation, all sorts of cluttered and pungent fume that fill the rooms must all have a detrimental effect on many as does the affliction of the so-called sea-sickness. We had just reached the North-Sea and the suffering began. Grievances, Complaints, moaning from all corners and sections and no matter what means they applied to stop it, nothing helped and if anything, it prolonged the outbreak. some enjoyed nothing, others filled their bellies, others decided to await the inevitable by lying in their bunks. Others were emboldened by wine and spirits, sang songs or jumped about in heady defiance only to join the others by eventually succumbing and ending up in a state of semi consciousness at a later stage.

Here the children groaned, over there bitter accusations were made by the much-suffering wives against their husbands who as they attested were responsible for getting them on board and where they are now losing their spirit. Poor lamentable husbands, as much as you want to help, you cannot, and when you are thrown onto vour bunk you sink into a state of indifference where you couldn't care less if it's the end of the world or not. If, however you remain lucid and reflective, then you wished vou were back home with your loved ones, on safe lands and rue the hour that took you to the swaying seas. With many the course of events may have cured them and they eventually become seaworthy, whereas with others the ill feeling returns with every forceful movement of the ship. Yes, there are people that cannot rid their affliction to sea sickness as long as the ship is in motion. Strong will power can however do much to alleviate - or at least shorten the illness and the stay in fresh air does much to restore the aching body and ease its healing.

I am not in a position to dispute the claim by sailors that this shock to the body would harden one's resistance against sickness for the later stages of the journey. From my personal experience I could not agree nor disagree, because I was never sea sick and always felt good. In any case, we should thank God that we only had few illnesses amongst the adults. Of the children six died and five were born. Luckily, we had a very experienced mid wife on board so that, even though Schomburgk had undergone a course on childbirth, we had no fatalities in that area. On other ships on the other hand that had gone to Australia there were many casualties and deaths, especially on the' Wilhelmine Marie' as well as on the 'Emmy' of which the latter had 30 deaths. This unfortunate English ship was hereafter known as the 'Death Ship'. Although most of the children buried at sea were of a tender age, (only one cute girl had already passed her 8th birthday) the hearts of the parents were torn in a most painful way.

Their loss was especially amplified at the thought that "our child would have been spared if we had stayed at home where we could help and nurture its progress". Their pain is then intensified at the thought of being deprived a proper burial, where an adorned grave with the remains of their loved one could be properly kept. Cared for Wrapped in sailcloth and weighed down with coal the body is lowered into the sea as soon as practical and usually happened at sunset. The ship would be turned by adjusting the sails, the mourning flag raised and the assembled would sing a few verses. A few appropriate words would then be spoken by one of us and then during a silent prayer the body surrendered (given-over) to the mighty sea grave. A somber mood that would last for the rest of the evening had now overtaken us and well might a worried glance from a father or a mother be cast over their children and ask themselves the aching question that is creeping over their souls, "will they be spared for me, will I safely take them across the wide oceans, or might I myself be torn away from them only to leave them behind and double their vulnerability? Yes, all you aspiring emigrants, look at your children! I know only too well that you want to give them a happy future, that they should reap the rewards that you, through your industry intend to create in a foreign land.

You may convince yourselves that it is your children's contentment that you seek but what if they succumb to the hardships of the voyage, or you are taken from them and they arrive in the new country with no friends to look after them and they go on as orphans? I  must admit that this endless worry had pained me in this regard and that every disorder shown by one of mine nourished that sensitivity but I can't thank God enough for allowing us all to sail back safely.

End Of Chapter 1


The journey to Rio de Janeiro, Our stay there was a job for 30 to 40 men who were often summoned - albeit with some resistance. The cleaning of bunks as well as mid deck had to be done as did the cleaning of food and drinking utensils all of which took up many hands. The crew also appreciated it when passengers lent a helping hand to work side by side with them. Individual craftsmen set up workshops, tailors worked in good weather on the big boat. Others helped the cook or carved spoons and ladles whereas others, especially after Rio de Janero, worked on coconuts from which they fashioned lovely bowls. Since the 'Princess Louise' was sailing well we moved forward fairly quickly and had already passed the equator on May 10. As was to be expected our sailors didn't forego this opportunity to have a party.

Shortly after 12 Noon Neptune appeared with his royal consort all adorned with badges befitting their status. They were escorted by their major in front of the captain onto the rear deck. Neptune then explained in a most formal manner as to the reasons for his appearance. He then asked the commander for permission to investigate amongst the crew and passengers if there were any crossing into the southern half of the globe for the first time. He would then prepare them so that they would be competent and capable enough to make that step. Of course, with a few exceptions, we all belonged to this class but so as not to stretch the ruse too long, it was only practiced on a select few. It worked well because an earlier selection made by his 'Majesty of the Seas' seemed very inclined to leniency but even so, and despite this, a lot of crudity went on, and the female gender wasn't spared either.

Although the face of the females wasn't smeared with ashen goo which was then scraped off with a giant wooden razor, they couldn't escape a few black smears or even less humiliating, a hefty dousing with sea water. The most ruthless application however was reserved for the cook. The cook had, by his unhygienic ways as well as his drunken preparation of the sailor's coffee used sea water on many occasions which really earned their wrath. His fate however he took heroically and without a grumble succumbed to all the misery performed on him. Less congenial were some of the passengers at ceremony's conclusion where the pranks nearly turned into bitter seriousness. This was because some of the hot heads declared that they would if necessary use weapons of any kind to defend themselves but luckily Neptune intervened by declaring his overall satisfaction and successful transition after which he withdrew to his world below the sea.

I had feared to suffer more from the heat, and I wasn't the only one to find it quite amenable. Of course, it triggered other unpleasantries. Pests were spreading so much that it was impossible for many to sleep in the mid deck and anyone that could find a place to sleep on deck did so. Neither the night fog nor the light rain could persuade us to move from the cool of the night on deck into the stifling hot air that wafted from the open hatches. From the present latitude we knew that our ship was closing in on Rio de Janeiro, which is something the captain had p.20 often put in doubt and kept secret. As we found out later however, the travel route was determined and set by the ship's owner and accordingly we were to land at either Bahai or Rio. I had noticed on several occasions that the captain was not eager to let anyone look closely at his charts, even though one might have expected his willingness to do so, if only to readily share the results of his observations with their knowledge- hungry passengers.

I have also found on many occasions that the captain was unwilling to answer as to the ships bearing, or even to giving vague answer. On several occasions the helmsman gave the passengers the requested information only to be censured by the captain who on occasion even disallowed him from participating in course and chart work. Maybe they just want to curb curious questioning or perhaps it has more to do with inner insecurities, the fear of inferiority if their studies and calculations are proven to be not too accurate, or when a passenger comes to the conclusion that these navigational calculations are not at all difficult and that the process doesn't rank as intellectually challenging as they may want us to believe. Our eyes were now focussed towards south west with yearning, for their convalescence, revitalization and maybe even total liberation awaited us all. Some had even decided that if conditions were favourable, they would leave the ship and stay in Rio.

At last on the eve of 26 May we saw Cape Frio and went to bed in the hope of casting anchor next day. Our hopes were realized and the first day of Pentecost became twice the holiday for us. Early at 4 a.m. we saw the steep and rocky coast line rise before us and at 5 pm we followed an American schooner through the enormous cliff- faced gateway, then past the protective batteries to p. 21 enter Rio's outer harbour. We were warned by a canon blast from the custom's ship not to advance any further and so we dropped anchor. In front of us - or rather all around us, was a splendid picture, so enormous that we forgot all else and our eyes could not leave the scenery that in its beauty was far above all our most brilliant expectations. Here was the grand water basin stretching deep into the land and covered with ships of all sizes and all nations.

There the bold bastions that had been built right down to the sea, ready with their fiery maws to engage with any intruder who dares to approach too close. Then in the distance is the city, densely packed around the harbour, looser and scattered on the slopes of the mountains, from which individual monasteries look down from rocky protrusions and onto the profane masses below. The whole is surrounded by hills rich with foliage under which the 'Corcovado' rises its proud head appearing to humbly retreat to the background yet always sitting in front of the glorious shimmer of the blue mountain chain to the west.

The grand beauty of Rio's location has too often been praised by better scribes than me so I need not dwell on it any longer, but my memories of it still fulfil me with delight even to this day and I think that the impressions gained there count towards my most pleasant experiences of my whole trip. We stayed on deck until late into the night the onset of which gave rise to countless lights appearing whilst from the city the last post could be heard. Our singers responded with German songs which in turn were answered from a neighbouring French ship.

Next morning we were woken by music from the Janissaries from the fort. We were waiting impatiently for the customs and health authorities, especially the latter because authorization for us to go on land was subject to their report. At last we got permission, as they found from the captain's report that the health conditions aboard were satisfactory, and anyone that could, rushed to the waiting rowing boats manned by negros and headed to shore. Having just arrived across the royal palace 'Largo Palacio' we were suddenly transposed into a new world. A barefooted, half naked negro was laden with our goods and through Dr. Mathaei, a German who had a knack of recognizing his fellow countrymen offered his help in securing accommodation at the hotel 'de la Marine' whilst others chose to stay at the German coffee house run by Mr Fechler. The following days were then used to get to know Rio and its immediate surrounds.

Unfortunately, my youngest daughter was laid up with a fever which caused me some concern thus preventing me from seeing many interesting and strange things first hand, instead of having to make do with a cursory inspection. However, due to her illness we had the honour of meeting Dr. Lallemande (sic.), one of the most sought-after doctors in Rio as well as his loving family. His friendly, selfless efforts to actively care for the wellbeing of his countrymen in general, and especially his active role in my and my family's wellbeing were much appreciated. Not least was the heart-warming hospitality offered by his wife, which leads me to commemorate some public gratitude, as this is the only thanks that I can offer. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the province of the same name. The whole kingdom lies on an eastern promontory. The city stretches along the length of the harbour and is surrounded by the 'Corcovado' and its foothills. At the beginning, along the most northern main road lies the monastery of St Bento, a mighty and strong building atop a low-slung ledge that rises abruptly from the sea. Originally it belonged to the Jesuits but then converted as barracks after the order was abolished there.

From here one has an overview of the entire harbour as well as the small beautiful islands sprinkled all over the bay. At the foot of the cliffs is the navy's arsenal and at the opposite end of the city is the arsenal 'da guerra' (sic) (da Guerra) No lesser noteworthy is the church 'Nossa Signora da Gloria' atop the southern peak of the 'Corcovado' from where vou can view the whole city. The main streets, - called 'Ruas' mostly run parallel to the shore line and are cut by perpendicular roads that lead from the beach up-to the foot hills. They are straight with foot paths but are narrow and poorly paved, are dimly lit by widely spaced oil lamps. During heavy down pours water gushes over them so that they are difficult to cross. The houses are small and narrow, never higher than 2 storeys but very deep with rooms that are generally dark but therefore cool during the hot periods. Only in the new part of the city which lies at the foot of the mountain are the houses built to suit new tastes. The houses in the old city rarely have a yard let alone a garden and are mostly used for business, because every citizen of means that lives outside the city also owns or rents a city property in which his family lives and to which he retires in the evening.

The most practical, grand and impressive structure in Rio is the big water pipe or "cariocca'. It rests on two rows of arches bringing water from the heights of the 'Corcovado' to the city from where it is distributed to various locations to then be further distributed to all areas by water carriers and two-wheeled carts. One follows the path along the white walls of the 'Carioca' to reach the 'Corcovado'. It is this walk that is the most rewarding. Once one has reached the first plateau the path leads along the foothill incline, gradually rising past huts and farm houses as well as the most magnificent gorges and chasms through which one has a magnificent view of the city, harbour and ocean and eventually the water pond where all of the cascading waters from the 'Corcovado' collects which is then taken up by the water pipe.

From here the path becomes more difficult but is still spectacular and it is where a primeval rainforest welcomes the wanderer. There are lush tropical plants, an abundance of strange and foreign plants, awesome climbing plants, all of which presented rich pickings for the natural scientists and collector. At last the forest becomes lighter with one-more steep slope to overcome before one steps out to the peak. This actually consists of 2 peaks, both of which are surrounded by a hand rail and are joined by a bridge. The unhindered view scans the distant sea and rests easily on the beautiful panorama deep below. Anyone not afraid of a steep descent can go back by doing so on the other side of the mountain, visit the botanic gardens along the way and catch a steam boat back to the ferry. Steam boats are a regular service between the city and distant attractions.

The opera house, which is poorly furnished as well as the 'Hospital da Misericordia' are close to the harbour to receive foreign sea farers. Both command one's attention by their sheer size and expanse. We also visited some churches which not just valuable examples of architecture or repositories for beautiful paintings but also excel in their treasure of internal ornamentation. In one we witnessed the preparation for a festival of one of their deities so everything was being done to decorate the interior spaces to their sparkling best. Rich gildings, precious vessels, magnificent garments adorned with gold and precious stones, as well as the bright gleaming lights which blind the eyes of anyone entering.

Normally there is also a folk-fest associated with this sort of religious festivity which is why the spaces in front of the church were filled with an inquisitive crowd. Separate stalls offered all sorts of refreshments and at 11 pm there was a firework display to the amusement of the Brazilians as well of those living in the 'hot zone'. The event is so popular that at most festivals and on all streets, the rockets and crackers are let off and it is not unusual for the unsuspecting occasional-visitor to get a big fright as they chance upon them.

The visit along the 'Passejo publico' or the public walk of Rio allowed us to observe the more affluent and elegant parts of Rio at close range. The 'Passejo publico' is a large park divided by tree lined paths. Three sides are defined by a high wall whereas along the fourth the garden's boundary is shared with the waters of the open bay. The best spot is at the end of the garden on the edge of the beach, where there is a 10-foot-high, 100-foot-long and 40-foot-wide terrace with a 10-foot-wide porch at its centre which is accessible from both sides by granite stairs. Two small chapels stand on either side of the terrace of which one is used for services and the other as a pavilion. This is the meeting ground for the Rio's more comfortable class, and on moonlit nights the 'Passeio' is very popular.

The muggy day has given way to a light sea breeze and beneath the beautiful trees one is pleased at the change of cool air to freshen the evenings. One can look from the terrace over the wide water basin to the grotesque forms of the rising mountain masses, or one drifts into pleasant dreams to the soft and rhythmic noises of the surf. You only meet clean and neatly dressed people here on the 'Passejo' because barefooted negroes clad in rags are not allowed to enter the area.

Barefooted negroes are slaves here. Shoes and socks are a sign of freedom and of course it often happens that the shoe of a freed negro squeezes or pinches, because his lot is not always the best, so that one often sees negros and negresses in rags with shoes rather than barefoot but yes, the barefooted are often so well dressed that they are not far behind our decorated lackeys back home. In general, the slaves here are well looked after stairs. Two small chapels stand on either side of the terrace of which one is used for services and the other as a pavilion. This is the meeting ground for the Rio's more comfortable class, and on moonlit nights the CHECK

Even so, the situation of the slaveshere touched me with some pain, and I could not continue my observations without some feeling of melancholy, at the degradation of the human race.  Many people in Rio keep slaves and hire them out like beasts of burden back home. Others send them away to look for work elsewhere and these poor folks won't be well received when they don't bring the expected wage back home.  Incidentally I have heard good, well-meaning and compassionate people defend slavery which leads me to conclude that the abhorrence we in Europe have against this practice would soon fade after an extended stay in slave tolerant lands.

Especially unpleasant is the situation where apart from having slaves one also has white servants. This is because when arguments break out, the white are always deemed to be right, even if they are screamingly wrong. To do otherwise would have courses lower themselves in the eyes of the coloured.  On a number of occasions, I visited the fish, vegetable and fruit markets to delight my senses and to acquaint myself with the produce there. The fish market was especially interesting. It covered one side of the large square that was entirely surrounded by a double row of stalls. The fish rich bay yielded plenty and we admired shapes and forms of the ocean dwellers we had never seen.

On the other sides the halls contained clay vessels, mats, all sorts of implements, birds, monkeys, coconuts and other things. At the centre of the tiled area the vegetable sellers had laid out their wares. The fruit market was not far away and more towards the inner harbour and we saw heaps of oranges, limes, bananas, as well as other fruits in such abundance that for a few 'Binteinen' (20 Reis, 1000 Reis = 25 Groschen) we could be well stocked up. A Brazilian explained about the oranges and how they should be enjoyed in the early morning which he designated as gold, mid-day as silver and lead for the evening. p.27 Oranges and bananas were my favourite fruit. Of the latter I had far better ones later in Batavia but nothing would ever beat the taste of the oranges I enjoyed in Rio. At the instigation of Dr. Lallemande (sic.) who, as mentioned earlier had a lively interest in our stay there and was convinced that to continue our journey to Australia would be to our detriment. And so, another attempt was made to convince us to stay in Rio. Two ship captains that had both transported migrants to Adelaide were sent to me to paint a picture of conditions there - which incidentally were not favourable or inviting and it did leave me a little apprehensive, but the thought of a better outcome there remained high considering that I saw no opportunity to make a living here in Rio.

On top of this, many of my goods were probably already on their way to Adelaide; should I give them up? I decided to continue the journey, but the departure from beautiful Rio by my family was done reluctantly. During our farewells Dr Lallemande (sic.) beckoned me to write to him honestly about conditions in Adelaide so that he could counsel others when the need arose. He also implored me that if I was convinced that if I was wrong in my assessment of Australia, I was not to continue my stay there so as to save my family from misery and ruin. I promised that I would and held my word. A long report about Adelaide is in his hands, and my family is, thanks to god all safe now.

On the evening of June 4, we went on board again but twenty of our fellow passengers stayed behind in Rio. They were mostly wood and iron workers who in part found employment at the arsenal, in royal workshops, or in part private and all under favourable conditions. From their letters that we later received in Adelaide they all did well but as is generally known many perished later from yellow fever, which until then was an unknown guest in Rio but has since raged there for two ears. On July 5 we left the harbour under favourable wind conditions to once more swim on the ocean for two months.

The captain hoped to find the 'Passat' somewhere between the southern latitudes of 38 and 40 degrees. We therefore changed our bearing to SSE, passed the Cape on July 26 yet didn't see anything of the southern cape of Africa. On July 11 we passed the small islands of 'St. Paul' and 'Amsterdam' which we tried to see but couldn't, because we sailed 6 miles north of them. Life on the ship - as far as comfort and food was concerned had slightly improved, whereas our inner, social harmony had declined somewhat. Because twenty people had left us it was possible do disassemble a few berths and thus gain some extra space on mid deck. As a result, there was a better distribution of the passengers. From Rio many had taken on provisions they considered as most suitable and included some cooking utensils so that it was possible to make things a little easier.

Unfortunately, the rations of spirit-based drinks also increased, especially Rum and fiery 'Lisbon Wine which was taken on board in large quantities. The factions that had been formed before Rio were now confronting each other with more hostility; so much so that at last the old committee resigned and a new one was formed. Old grievances between the captain and the helmsman were also rekindled on top of which the relationships between the captain and his crew broke down even further and especially so with one of the members which escalated into a most unpleasant episode involving physical contact.

To revenge himself, the captain resolved to humiliate the crew by ordering the setting of additional sails. This was despite a stiff breeze blowing so that the first-helmsman objected, pointing out the increased dangers of setting leeward sails in strong winds, but the captain insisted and the first helmsman vowed that he would rather resign than p. 29 carry out the orders. Despite all this upheaval, the captain's orders were carried out. The second helmsman didn't dare to disobey and for many hours our ship was in no insignificant danger and all this so that the captain could indulge in some petty vengeance. As soon as the sails were set however the captain left the deck, whereupon the lee-sails were quickly taken down again.

No less inconsiderate was his behaviour against the passengers. Not just that, but especially towards the evening when he talked to some passengers in a most insulting way. One night he went so far as to lay a hand against a young man and only by the intervention of calm and level-headed men was an eruption of high volatility prevented. To prevent any similar situation from reappearing I began to hold reading sessions in a central space on mid deck and I was successful in attracting the majority of the bassengers to gather around me for a few hours. This usually took place between 6 and 8 pm and although occasional attempts were made to intervene and disrupt, the perpetrators didn't dare to carry things through for fear of serious reprisals.

I must admit that under these circumstances time moved slowly, yet still, my concerns rose the closer we got to our destination and somewhere between fear and hope I looked forward to our arrival in Australia. At last, on August 6 at 8 am we saw in land at NNW. from which a steep cliff-face soon emerged. It was. Kangaroo Island which we approached from SW. We had to sail around a large portion of the Island in order to reach the NW cape which lies opposite Gulf of St.Vincent. All along this side the island falls steeply into the sea, individual peaks were covered with forests which nevertheless suggested to be uninteresting. We noticed a building amongst the bushes on the north side with windows which shone by reflecting the evening sun, and as the rising smoke proved, it was not uninhabited. p. 30 Next morning we had already entered the Gulf of St. Vincent which stretches deep into the land. To its side was a sandy, low coast covered with bushes and some trees.

We passed a light ship and around 10 am the rising smoke announced the approaching steam ship. Our captain declined to be towed, instead opting to take a pilot on board. Soon after we turned around the northern point of the peninsular we had just sailed along, navigating into one of the channels of the bay which stretches from here to SE. We crossed the sand bar safely our ship goes 14 feet into the water) which continues in front of us and let ourselves drift along slowly by the tide towards Port Adelaide. We arrived there around noon and dropped anchor in the middle of the harbour.

End Of Chapter 2


Landing in Australia, visit to the capital Adelaide, my settlement in the vicinity of same, several mishaps, decision to return. So here we are! So, this was the much-promised, hotly desired South Australia! How our eyes scanned the horizons to explore the lands, and how we all really tried to be optimistic hoping for a more positive outcome to our dreams and aspirations. There were absolutely no feelings of romanticism about what we saw but instead, a flat swampy sight greeted us, a somewhat sandy, barren and desolate coastline beyond which lay a treeless landscape and the sprawling hills. Nevertheless, the harbour itself played host to some twenty ships and showed some stately buildings that stretched along the water. These included a wool store and bulwarks where ships were being loaded and unloaded. There was also a flurry of carts, laden with all sorts of goods and somehow, all this activity all gave us a glimmer of hope at least, after our first, rather dismal and depressing assessment.  But why make an assessment from a distance? Why not make an evaluation on the spot? | therefore prepared myself to go on shore with two companions, one of whom spoke perfect English and resolved to go immediately and with confidence to gain that first-hand knowledge. We climbed onto the boat that had just arrived and the leader assured us that if we weren't 'Emigrants' (people that came here at the cost of the government) but 'Passengers', (that had paid their own fare) we would be free to go on land.and so we let ourselves be transported the distance of around 30 paces at a cost of sixpence per person and thus were soon on Australian soil. The weather was fine.

Adelaide the capital was only to be 7 miles away so we decided to go on foot, deciding against using spring carts that were being offered without thinking that it was the rainy season. It was good at the beginning and a graded road passed through two-foot-high gnarly yet widely spread 'ice plants' to our left and right as well as the withered weed-covered swamp.

The road was set high and must have cost a considerable sum to maintain, considering the heavy loads it has to bear each day. After we had covered a distance of one mile from Port Adelaide we reached Alberton (Albertown sic) which, in the local context is a fairly important place consisting of around 100 houses. Here the road became almost too boggy and we had to circumvent some difficult parts. On both sides there was greenery and we continued our wanderings undeterred by the intermittent rain and were not even tempted to enter any of the pubs we saw along the way. Soon we came across individual farms and admired the lush wheat fields. In contrast we saw a group of eucalypts with their leaf-poor canopies (some of which were completely bare, suggesting their life force had already been depleted which did not make p. 32 a good impression on us.

Similarly, the farm houses here just didn't compare with those at home which we considered far superior and magnificent. The next largish town - we almost thought it to be Adelaide which is ¾ miles further, but which is actually two towns - Bowden (Broden sic) and Hindmarsh which are however only separated by the country road. Both owe their existence through clay, of which there is an abundance and almost all residents are employed in clay brick making brick behind Hindmarsh a 100-foot-long timber bridge continues over the deep river bed of the Torrens. The road continues over a gently rising plain and after we ascended a moderate incline we saw an undulating hill atop beyond which the city of Adelaide was visible. The first impression of the city from this side was not unpleasant and yes, we were impressed that with such a youthful age, the colony already had so much to offer.


[NO 3 20220317_003, page 57]

We asked a constable about a German pub we had heard about and not only did he give us the correct answer in a most friendly way, but also escorted us for some distance. It was 3 pm when we entered but even then, we found many patrons. They were German tradesmen and although I wondered as to why I found them in the pub so early, I reasoned that they were there out of natural curiosity to obtain news from home, for the news that a ship had arrived from Germany was already known to everyone. We would probably have met a lot more Germans if they hadn't already made their way to the port with some looking for their relatives. As friendly as they were in welcoming us, their news of the colony was very depressing.

Rising expenses for food and rent, a scarcity of work which was in part due to the oversupply of workers and partly because of the unfavourable time of year. These plus illnesses were the main reasons for their complaints. Of course, I wasn't happy about their information so I visited a few learned Germans, especially Dr. Baier (sic. Bayer), who is a skillful, popular and well respected medical practitioner here.

But even he just shrugged his shoulders, p.33 chided at the reported lies that were being spread about the colony and remarked openlv that I, with my large family would find it very difficult here and to proceed only with the utmost caution before starting anything. He also spoke unfavourably about health issues in the colony which was something I wasn't expecting. As proof of his declaration he showed me a not too insignificant list of sick people he had visited only the day before.

After a lengthy search I was able to secure accommodation to rent. For two small rooms, kitchen and stabling which was all accessible from a yard would cost 9 shillings (3Thaler) per week. Crestfallen I returned to my ship where unfavourable reports had already been received and spread around, so that my return was awaited with some trepidation. I had no reason to remain silent about my experiences on shore, for the truth would have come to light sooner or later. Even so, my reports upset some members here, which embolden them enough to vent abuse against me. I endured their vengeance silently, for I've had worse.

Similar scenes were repeated several times because the emigrants are usually so full of hope that they call anyone a liar whose information doesn't correspond with their own expectations. Two acquaintances of mine that had just boarded another recently arrived migrant ship had made themselves very unwelcome by their adverse description of conditions here. It nearly came to blows as they were accused of making fun of the new arrivals by telling them fairy tales. After a few days the ship was taken to its moorings where our belongings were off loaded.

The customs officials were quite humane and although we had to open the crates - we had after all a fairly comprehensive contents list, they were satisfied with just a cursory inspection. On the third day however, they became much stricter because it was rumoured that a large quantity of tobacco had been smuggled in which resulted in much more thorough inspections.

Tobacco and spirits were the objects that attracted the highest customs duty. The high duty therefore tempts many to bring in illegal goods so as to maximize their profit. The transport of goods from the ship to Adelaide was very expensive because for a two-wheeled cart the cost was 15 shillings and that is why those with several crates were better off to engage an agent.

[NO 3 20220317_006, page 60]


Soon after we had moved into our new temporary home we asked ourselves 'what now'? I fluctuated for a long time when thinking about this and eventually I decided on the industry of market gardening since a young man, a qualified gardener had associated himself with me. We traversed the Adelaide surrounds because I wanted to stay close to the city to sell my soon- to- be- grown produce and eventually I found a suitable place which not only had good quality soil but was also close to the city.

The property was 1 ½ hrs. south-east from Adelaide at the foot of the hills on land owned by Mr. Frew who proposed to establish a village there and to name it 'Fullarton', after his wife's parent's name. A few settlers had already established themselves there and it was hoped that more would soon follow. At the end of August, I decided to finalize the purchase contract and wanted to hurry so as to make use of the end of the rainy season and plant some seedlings.

Whilst my family remained in the city I decided to live in half of a small labourer's cottage located close to my land. Now began a life of most strenuous labour. At first a small timber 'house' (shed) was built so that a few things could be stored there and to offer temporary shelter during storms. Then the entire property had to be ('umfriedigt) surrounded with a strong timber fence, a so called 'fenz' (sic) to prevent herds of horses and oxen from entering. At last the land was ready to be tilled.

This was especially challenging because the soil had been soaked earlier by rain showers allowing the spade to be stabbed through with ease, but then it stubbornly stuck to the claggy mass due to its fat-like consistency so that we could hardly do 10 stabs before we had to clean it.  With this work one of us also had to keep kitchen as well as cutting the necessary wood from the nearby 'busch' (sic) for which we had permission. We also had to keep house for which my sons were very helpful in lending a hand as well as bringing provisions from the city.

I had brought a maid with me from Germany who had however left us soon after our arrival. She was of the opinion that she was entitled to the same wages in Australia without having to pay back her travel fees. Things weren't any better with a young gentleman who claimed to be an economist in Berlin and without actually wanting to pay for his travel expenses, his constant pleas compelled me to lend him the money which amounted to around the same as for the maid. He had promised, in no uncertain terms, to work his debt off but when he had dug for 14 days for me he declared the work too difficult and that he preferred to live the life of a vagabond. All this despite me feeding him and giving him accommodation and also paying him 10 Shillings from which I wanted to deducted 8 Shillings to cover his debts.  then met him later at a pub with a full glass of beer and when I reminded him of his debts he had the cheek to tell me that under English law I was not allowed to approach him in a public place - that is to say to harm his reputation, and that he would repay me as soon as his bride arrived and who, as he hoped, would bring money with her.

[NO 3 20220317_008, page 62]

In 2 ½ months all the necessary jobs had been completed, a substantial portion of land dug over and seeded. Another portion was ploughed and although the season had long advanced, potatoes were also planted. p.36 My family now moved in with me and I prepared a female section from the rooms we had occupied in our portion of the labourer's cottage. We men and the boys moved into the board-clad shed which I had enlarged with some earthen walls. carthen wilh During all this, I began to build a house for which, apart from a joiner the carpenter 'Struwe' also helped me. He was most helpful with his many suggestions and very skilled in his trade. He was diligent and generally a great worker who also had a good and practical knowledge of the agriculture and milling industry the latter of which he had also managed for a while. Despite all this however he was determined to leave the colony even though he had plenty of work and with his competence and ability had far greater prospects of making a good living than many others here. But, that's how little he thought of conditions in Adelaide.

I decided to build a timber house. This was because in part, it would be quicker and partly because I didn't think I had the means to build one from solid masonry. One goes about building such a timber house here in the following way. Instead of foundation walls, sturdy two-foot-long stumps are spaced 3-feet apart. These are then dug into the ground and after they are set vertical are connected with perimeter timbers. Into these slots are then chiselled into them and timbers of a similar size are stood up into the slots spaced 18 inches apart. These are then held together at the top end by other perimeter timbers also similar to the ones at the base.

Across these are then laid the beams which will support the ceiling. On top of these are the roof timbers which when laid out are then fixed to the top perimeter timbers. These rise at an angle towards the centre where another beams are then positioned between them and onto which the angled beams are nailed from both sides thereby forming the peak. The outer sides are covered with 6-foot-long, ¾ foot wide and ½ inch thick boards (named 'Palings'). These are fixed over each other along the width so that the thinner edge is a bit over the lower board. On the inside the vertical timbers have inch wide strips of timber nailed onto them horizontally and the space between the inner and outer walls then filled with dirt, small stones and even wood shavings which is all then finished by throwing mortar onto it.

This squeezes through the gaps and is then smoothed out and plastered. The ceiling is made in a similar fashion which incidentally won't be able to carry a heavy load. Sometimes the ceiling is omitted altogether and if no material is stretched over it one sees only the roof above. On this the above-mentioned palings 5 foot in length are also adapted in that they are cut in the middle and then the pieces nailed onto thin cross-timbers which are nailed 6 inches apart. The length of joints of abutting shingles is then 2/3 covered with the next shingle above thus not allowing any rain to penetrate but to run off.

[NO 3 20220317_011, page 65]

Around the perimeter was a 6-foot-wide so-called veranda; that is, a porch-like roof supported on posts to protect against the sun's rays. The house was finished at the end of January and we moved in immediately. This made life a bit easier for my family because until then 4 people had to sleep in one small room and also live there and sometimes, despite the heat being 26 to 30 degrees, cook for 9 to 10 people. Despite the outdoor cooking place, I had built for them they weren't better off because they had the heat from cooking as well as from the of the sun to contend with. They also had to be careful not to be affected by sudden wind gusts that might fan the flames. At times I felt sorry for them when I was in the fields that they ran out of fire wood and water so that 66 House

The house consisted of four rooms. A slightly larger living room, two small bed rooms and a kitchen. The kitchen had, instead of a low fire place a German cooking stove under which I had a bake oven installed. There was also a small cellar and attic. they laboriously had to collect the former from the bush and the latter from a distant well. At least we were now together at one place and I could be helpful and supportive in chores that requires greater strength. Also, our lives were improving, as we now had p.38 more space. We could even entertain a visitor despite not being in a position to offer him a chair, because apart from a few boxes which are covered with a blanket and served as Ottomans, our entire furnishings consisted of one very robustly crafted Pine commode from Germany, one table knocked up from palings, two benches, two old and dilapidated 'field' chairs, and some timber blocks as armchairs.

Soon things were looking a bit more lively and cheerful around us, a small number of livestock had also been collected, one cow supplied our daily milk and was still able to find enough feed on the land, but a careful eve had to be kept on her as peas, beans gherkins and melons were an amazing attraction for her. I had 18 chickens which cost me 2 Shillings each and despite some mishaps and losses due to birds of prey they over fifty. Added to this were 6 ducks and a small flight of 8 pairs pidgeons which my daughter 'C' was given by Mr Frew when ther were still very young and she then reared with great care. In front of the house and towards the road was a large Rondel with flowering wallflowers, lovely smelling Vetches (genus Vicia), Pelagonias (geraniums) and roses.

Towards the field there was beet and flowering poppies, carnations and fragrant Resedas. We were especially happy about the healthy location of our house because the dust clouds from the road doesn't reach us. We also enjoyed the beautiful view and whilst to our sides there are the foot hills on our south and east, on the other side, we could see the city in front of us and on the other side we looked over a few little, settlements and wooded areas, further on We could see the blue ocean and with our naked eyes follow the white sails of ships heading to the Port. When we sat under the veranda we could follow the red disc of the sun gradually vanishing into the sea, or p. 39 we could look at the mass of dark mountains until the sparkling silvery moon emerged from behind and magically illuminate individual peaks with its magic light. We would also rejoice when the cool air arrived whilst we were on the field and delighted at the clear, starlit night sky above. In those moments one forgot all earthly worries, a divine peace breathed through the whole landscape to fill even the most troubled heart with its unfathomable peace.

With aspired hope the eyes glanced up and new faith filled the soul. But the new day awakened old worries anew and unfortunately it was not insignificant. My hope to make a profit from farming did not materialize because before the young plants could find strength, the heat had set in and prevented their healthy development. Soon the soil got so dry and to just keep the plants alive we had to empty our well twice a day. Around 300 grapevines which had started off in good physical shape, were now totally lost. Peas and beans delivered so poorly that I could only send a small harvest to sell to the city. Similarly, the cabbages, gherkins and melons performed so poorly so that our expectations were not met.

Of the European tree and shrub types there was nothing happening, with the exception of Acacias and (Goldregen) Laburnum (Golden rain). I was particularly disappointed with the poor potato harvest because I already had, because the surface soil was hindering the potato growth I was happy to make do with breaking even. On top of this I was the victim of untold damage due to my neighbour's oxen. My neighbour is a well to do farmer and in January when his wheat field that borders onto my property was harvested he drove many of his young oxen over the stubble

.[NO 3 20220317_015, page 69]

These were however more attracted to my fresher food and so to get onto my land broke my 'Fenz' nearly every evening. Even though I was up at the merest noise - often in just my (night) shirt to at least keep the animals away from my crops p.40 which I couldn't alwavs accomplish so that the next morning showed me the destruction which they had made during the night.

After I requested that my neighbour mend his fence on several occasions, which is something he was required to do, and to agist his oxen on a more distant pasture, I finally threatened to impound them. I was successful in driving some of the culprits to the pound but according to the law I was only entitled to make a claim for the damage incurred on the day when they were impounded and since the claims I made were apparently too exorbitant for the gentleman, I became involved in a legal process which even if it didn't end up being judged my fault, the drawn out process penalised me in that the planned trip to the Murray which I had planned for March couldn't be done. My opponent didn't show up for two hearings, which meant a lot of walking on my behalf for nothing just to get to the city which then also caused me to miss opportunities elsewhere.

In any case, before the legal matter was finalized I had left Adelaide. As much as we curtailed our spending my resources were diminishing more and more, because even building the house cost much more than I had initially budgeted for. I found myself pressured into selling some of my items because I really needed a larger sum so that I could prepare the land for the next season and get new trees and vines into the ground; despite not being guaranteed any earnings at a later stage.

[NO 3 20220317_017 page 71]

In vain I searched deep throughout my sleepless and troublesome nights for a solution. In vain I tried to expel the dark thoughts by working feverishly for my English neighbour by digging up his land. I also noticed how my family, no matter how much they tried to hide it, felt unhappy. My wife faded quite visibly and I often found my daughters becoming more introverted and a secretly wiped tear expressed their inner thoughts. My oldest son immersed himself into his studies. p.41 For my second son I was able to get work with a baker in the city. It touched me deeply when he approached me to hand over his first week's wages and then, more bad news hit us. oldest Son turio Secord Son BakerI had gone to the city and in passing had asked as usual at the Post Office if I had any letters. My question was answered with a 'yes' and a letter duly handed to me which I quickly opened with some trepidation.

This was because the handwriting on the address was unknown to me and even amongst the contents I searched without success for a script familiar to me. The first sentences gave me the news that 8 months after our departure death had wrenched two of our dearest friends from us. I will not reveal what impact this news had on my family.

It buckled any hope we may have had of a better outcome and instead very gloomy davs were now upon us. That's when I decided to confront any false modesty and to return home to the fatherland at the first opportunity. I was sure that to prolong our stay here would be to our detriment. Of course, it wasn't easy to achieve this because 1 didn't have enough means to go with an English ship whereas German ships rarely went back via of a direct route, instead opting to go via Batavia or Balparaiso (sic. Valparaiso near Santiago in Chile) Where they anticipate a load to go to Europe and the long-time one had to endure made such a voyage very expensive.

[NO 3 20220317_018, page 72]

In May however several ships from the Godefroi (sic)line were expected here to load copper ore so that there may be an opportunity to leave Australia. So as not to diminish my means any further I decided to take a job in Adelaide so that my earnings could temporarily support us. An opportunity arose to work for a tanner but before I had to make up my mind there arose an opportunity for our salvation. God helped! In the harbour was the 'Livonia' a Bark from Bremen.

[NO 3 20220317_019, page 73]

The captain had heard of our sad situation and as a result of my pleas, as well as the appeals by a willing supporter and friend, the merchant B. Noltenius, the captain sympathized and after he got to know us agreed to take us. 

[NO 3 20220317_019, page 73]

End Of Chapter 3




NO 5, PAGE 49, 20220317, ‘page 85’


Farming, Stockbreeding, Mining, Climate

The land in South Australia is either fertile farmland, grazing land or mineral land so that the main occupation of the settlers is therefore agriculture and horticulture, stockbreeding or mining. The former is, as mentioned earlier preferable in the western plains and the southern vales. The soil is either clayey sands or of fatty earth with a chalky base but may also contains stone and granite.

The surveyors accurately divided the land into 80-acre sections which is then offered by the Government for the price of £1 Sterling per acre. This land is then offered at public at auctions which are held every three months. With these prices however, it is difficult to obtain any land within 20 to 40 English miles from Adelaide and although there may be some virgin land available in these districts it is mostly in private hands or bought by speculating Companies p.50 which then sell it on at considerably inflated prices. If there are any unsold sections one can make a slightly better offer to the Government which will not re - auction the land again. To buy such sections however is not to be encouraged, because if the land were good, it would have already found a buyer. I know of a number of cases where this has led to the misfortune for the buyer - in particular one of our ship companions, the previous music teacher L. who blames the loss of his fortune on just such a poor decision.

The land, in close proximity to Adelaide already commands £10 to £40 Sterling per acre, but as the distancing from the city increases, the price is also naturally decreased (diminished).

Anyone intent on farming has to financially extend himself because according to some experienced colonists § 500 Sterling is the capital needed. Seldom can a German migrant family afford such a sum so that many will therefore try to lease a parcel of land but even this has its drawbacks. Although landowners love to rent-out their land and the money may not be all that much, but once the first term of the lease has expired, the lessee has done his money as well as his

Page 86

sweat to toil the land and should it then transpire that although he is profiting from his hard work he is told that his rental is to be increased up by an ashamedly amount so that it would be wiser for him to turn his back, cut his losses and hope that enough has been saved to purchase his own land and to start again.  Often though the lessee hasn't bothered to put in all his efforts into working and hence 'improving' the land because he already had an inkling of what might happen and so, he might stand a better chance of a better deal.

There are two main reasons why the business of farming can become more expensive or even totally destroy it. Firstly, the necessity to fence the property with a strong and sturdy fence so as to protect it from unsupervised herds and secondly, the shortage of water.

51 For the former, it requires a substantial investment even if the settler can cut the fence wood from nearby government land even though he has no right to do so considering that fenced lands often has double or triple the value. In the latter case it may force him to abandon the land altogether, because how can anyone get water which may be hours away-for man and beast.

Page 87

20220317_003 page 88

Although there are indicators on the surface - which one shouldn't discard, that there could be fresh water available, settlers are often invigorated when they find it after only their first attempt even though his neighbour has attempted to strike water three or four times to no avail, or he may have eventually reached some brackish water 80 feet down which he can't even use for his stock.

The banks of the creeks are therefore the first places to be settled. If the former has a constant supply of flowing water- even just for eight months, they sink holes so that during the hot period a fresh supply of water is maintains.

During the harvest season the farmer uses foreign workers, because even though he manages the property with his farmhands, it is important to harvest it quickly enough so that the wheat doesn't become overripe thus increasing the hardship of the farmer.

During December and January many field workers are therefore recruited. They don't work for a daily wage but instead work for an agreed sum to harvest an agreed parcel of land. If the German immigrant wants to earn something by means of working in the field he has to join such a worker's party where he must of course be able to keep up with the pace which can of course be tough - if not impossible for the inexperienced. The wheat is cut with long narrow sickles about one foot wide just below the head and sheaves either stacked in bundles or immediately thrashed in a threshing machine. Lately one uses machines for cutting and then there are only two p.52 People necessary to harvest a field - one to handle the Oxen which are harnessed to the machine, and the other to direct it.

Only the green feed for livestock- mostly consisting of oats - is cut with a scythe and then, only after it has been laid out for about eight days in small piles on the land where it grew and is then piled onto a larger stack.

This takes the place of hay, because grasslands are not known in Australia and is cut with a knife, similar to our daggers, in bundles of 3 foot in length and 11/2-foot-wide then cut in equal size from the main stack to be taken to the city for sale. If the farmer doesn't have a threshing machine he extracts the grain by letting the oxen trample the green feed on the field where because the ground is so hard due to the heat, very little grain is lost.

Straw is of little value in Australia. Usually the farmers overnight their stock on rented properties in the open rather than barns and


allows them to graze there at will. On the fields which are harvested with a machine the remaining straw is burned off and often these widespread burning lands provided us with a beautiful sight.

Usually one sets these fields alight at quiet evenings but to safeguard against the spread of fire one has to plough three furrows around the field. Despite this however, there is sometimes sufficient combustible material for the fire to spread widely. We once saw seven sections burn which turned into an enormous sea of fire p.52 cont. whose roar one can hear a quarter of an hour away and its reflective red glow lit up the entire sky.

From all sides farmers and their men then burst into action to fight it and at times it seemed as if the night rider advanced right through the flames to hasten his journey to the endangered spots. Only through our combined efforts by using branches and bits of clothing p.53. were we able to extinguish the flames and thus save a nearby silo of corn.

The ongoing dry only encourages these fires which have a tendency to spread widely and even a carelessly snuffed tobacco pipe can be enough to turn wide districts into ash.

The farmer Frew, from whom I had purchased my land, lost his farm and some of his animals


20220317_005 page 90

on Christmas eve for a second time through such carelessness. Again, on this occasion the fire spread to neighbouring properties reaching a farm ½ a mile away which could only be saved because the neighbours quickly assisted in digging a trench.

Of more devastating notoriety and more common are the fires in the neighbouring hills. They usually begin through carelessness attributed to drivers staying overnight or by roving natives which light fires in the open and when leaving their camp, they pay little attention to extinguishing it.

Fires are often also lit on purpose to assist next year's grass growth or to eradicate pests and other creepy crawling things. Recently a forest fire appeared in the hills about two and a half hours away from us. Its thick steam clouds engulfed the peaks during the day which, when driven by an easterly wind spread right over the city and covered it with a stinky pungent plume of smoke. By night however, only the individual fires could be seen and all appeared as if they were bivouac fires from an encamping army. A street or river bed is often sufficient to stop the fire from spreading.

There are some difficulties for those not so well-off who nevertheless are intent on


starting a gardening business and to do this, they must be close to the markets in Adelaide.

Here however they will find the land quite expensive on top of which he must also account for the expense of establishing such a garden. p.54

Any such would-be gardener must also ensure that the soil is ploughed deeply to successfully grow the trees and vines as well as leguminous plants. Should the settler be blessed with significant bodily strength he should do this work himself.

This is because it is one of the hardest to do since to dig just two feet into the ground I had to use the pick three times even though the first thrust loosened the first half foot. It is very strenuous work especially in 30 plus degrees and if you decide to engage someone else to do the work it would cost 30 to £ 40

Sterling per acre.

There are also the grapevines and fruit trees to buy, not to mention the acquisition of a sturdy fence. A modest fence consisting of posts that are set 8 feet apart and joined by two to three rails is not suitable for the farmer because this will not be adequate to contain smaller animals.

That the ground itself is fertile is undeniable and many examples of European plants grow here wonderfully. I have never eaten such delicious grapes, peaches and figs, never seen such large cabbages, potatoes and carrots as here in Australia and there is good money to be made from their sale in Adelaide. To succeed one has to invest a lot of money and have the means to survive for nearly two years. In February the Land and Garden society holds an annual exhibit in in the park lands of Adelaide. It is held in a specially built large tent to exhibit the best produce and awards prizes to encourage only the best. This is what happened in the February 1850 exhibition resulting in the most praiseworthy produce.

Associated with the exhibit is a folk festival where visitors can find all sorts of knick-knacks, facilities for eating and drinking, to dance and in general be able to participate in all sorts of enjoyment. As with agriculture so too is the pursuit of stock breeding an expensive exercise where a large amount of capital necessary. One can of course get p.55 grazing land at cheap rentals. Sheep as well as horned livestock are in abundant supply here but small herds are not as profitable because they require just as much capital as large ones. A shepherd can manage to graze 100(sheep just as easily as


500; and the cost difference to establish a sheep station as well as its upkeep and wages for the shepherds is not far apart so that is why one finds only well-to-do Englishmen as station owners, leaving the poor Germans as shepherds or station hands and to lead a most unhappy life. These live in the middle of nowhere, often 20 to 30 miles from the nearest white residence in a tiny hovel of a house with three humans.

Two are shepherds who drive their sheep out in the early hours and return towards evening where the third, a station hand, runs the household and prepares breakfast and the evening meals daily. Meals consists of tea, mutton and 'damper (dough made from flour, water and salt baked on the hot side of the fireplace). The station hand also cleans the hut, washes the clothes and guards the place with the help of dogs which then guard the stock which is driven into a stockade and kept there overnight only to be given over to the shepherds again the next morning.

The wage is 8 shillings per week for the station hand, 15 to 20 shillings for the experienced shepherd which includes their keep. Only occasionally does a traveller venture by who is readily entertained with tea and damper or a passing group of natives for a change to an otherwise solitary life. From


20220317_009 page 94

time to time the owners also appear to check things out, to enquire about the stock or to hunt the nearby kangaroo or emu.


It is hard to believe that one can meet very educated people in one such shepherd huts, including doctors of philosophy. No doubt, of course they chose this vocation because they were unsuitable for any physical hard work elsewhere so that out of desperation they were forced to choose this vocation. No doubt too, this lifestyle also attracted them to at least spend a half year in the wilderness but in the last example, this starry-eyed and idyllic existence soon moderated so that this sort of indulgence would not be repeated a second time.


At the time of sheep shearing, that is, in November, there is work available even for the foreigners, and depending on their skill, good money can be made. One pays for 100 sheep to be shorn 10 to 15 shillings and I've been told that there are people that can shear 60 in a day. A diligent and skillful worker could therefore earn a pretty good weekly wage especially because he only has to pay 1 shilling per day for his meal.

DV. Phil. " Bull


Some of my fellow passengers who had tried this type of work could only reach a tally of 20 sheep. On top of this they had to reach the distant station on foot whereas the Englishman usually arrived by horse even if they wished to obtain only a small portion of the work. A tailor complained bitterly that although he was used to handling shears, he couldn't control the sheep herd and that the sheep weren't as calm under him as they were with others. The poor soul nearly died of starvation on his return journey where he became separated from his companions and had, for nearly two days wandered around aimlessly.  The cattle industry is very significant. It supplies the entire needs of the colony's slaughter and draft animals. A cow costs an average of 3 § Sterling and a bullock 5.  Horse breeding is still a bit behind because from time to time horses are imported from Sydney ('Sidney') and sold at a market close to Adelaide for 4 to 5 or even 10 € Stirling each.  They are of course still raw and must, as they say in the Colony, be broken in; that is, prepared for riding and driving. The breaking in normally costs 3 £ and is one of the most difficult jobs for which not only skill and physical strength is necessary but also a lot of calm and patience. The horses are from good

No 5 20220317_012, Page 97

stock, are brave and resolute. With horses it is common for them to be galled by riding, perhaps as a result of working them too hard from a young age and the Englishman never trots but gallops.




p.57 Horse races, a favourite pleasure of the English, are also held in Australia. On a wide green in front of the city's South Terrace there was a track laid out and in the three days of the new year there was much racing and betting. A large crowd partook a most lively tore

Races Vic Park part of each race and for their catering needs the publicans - the owners of inns are known - spared nothing on their large and elaborate booths, all richly decorated with balloons and flags which in essence offered a most interesting sight.

A lot of fuss has been made about Australia's mineral wealth, and in no country, - with the

exception of California have so many mines Min emerged in a short time as in South Australia with a yield however less glossy than one had boom hoped for. Many mines hardly cover their overheads and in others the shareholders have had to raise their contribution. Only if coal is discovered will the mining industry have a better future. The great yields from the Burra mines has tempted many an investor to speculate in mining ventures only to be declared bankrupt or have dragged others into financial ruin. Even the Burra Mines have declined in their yield and it seems as though their shares are kept at their peak artificially.

In recent times silver mines and alluvial gold have been discovered and recently panned but until now the daily wage of the worker has not been met by washed out gold. The sudden rise of the Burra Mine shares and the resultant fortunes made by some colonists caused many to buy shares in newly discovered mines. It is therefore not unusual in South Australia to make a big fuss about newly discovered mineral finds so as to create a rush for shares and where possible, to inflate them.

And slowly the original entrepreneurs would withdraw leaving the hapless investors to lose their capital. It is yet to be seen if the precious stone finds discovered during my stay In South Australia and sent to Hamburg for analysis will give a positive outcome. Some of the members of the companies that were formed to mine these had already declared themselves as millionaires, but I suspect that their optimistic hopes may have already been drastically dampened. At last, and so that all forms of treasures are represented, I heard privately that in the vicinity of Kangaroo Island Oyster Pearls were found and I

No 5 20220317_013, page 98

wouldn't be surprised if one day I read in the newspaper that

" The pearls in South Australia are superior in size and purity than those of East India" p.58

As far as wages are concerned, they are set extremely low and since the food at the remote mining districts is so expensive it is for those that earn just a normal wage a bit disappointing.

German immigrants

incidentally tend to seek this mining work only if there isn't any other available, but even there their attempts may be unsuccessful because even the Burra mines has a surplus of workers and is in the habit of dismissing some. I have had discussions with some that had worked in the Burra and they couldn't describe enough about the barbarity of condition for the workers there and I can believe their tales that only the greatest poverty would take them back there.

Even though the climate of South Australia had little impact on me and many of my compatriots in so far that we could forget all our ailments and worries- I am detached enough to offer some critical advice. It is well known that there is no winter and just a rainy and a hot season. The former begins in May and finishes in September but the seasons

wouldn't be surprised if one day I read in the newspaper that " The pearls in South Australia are superior in size and purity than those of East India" p.58

As far as wages are concerned, they are set extremely low and since the food at the remote mining districts is so expensive it is for those that earn just a normal wage a bit disappointing.

German immigrants incidentally tend to seek this mining work only if there isn't any other available, but even there their attempts may be unsuccessful because even the Burra mines has a surplus of workers and is in the habit of dismissing some. I have had discussions with some that had worked in the Burra and they couldn't describe enough about the barbarity of condition for the workers there and I can believe their tales that only the greatest poverty would take them back there.

Even though the climate of South Australia had little impact on me and many of my compatriots in so far that we could forget all our ailments and worries- I am detached enough to offer some critical advice. It is well known that there is no winter and just a rainy and a hot season. The former begins in May and finishes in September but the seasons


don't appear suddenly, but instead arrive gradually and are punctuated with rain showers which gradually increase in intensity and duration reaching its peak in June.

PER the rains then fade again so that there are the occasional rain free days. Thunderstorms are common around this time and the rain showers were often associated with hail in September. The south west winds were prevalent and often blew with such ferocity that I thought my timber house would collapse right over my head. When we arrived

His Timbertare at the beginning of August, we found the temperature quite pleasant and I was quite surprised when my neighbour greeted me ..cold today with " …very cold today, Sir" but they had Sir?  been in the colony a bit longer and anyone that has experienced the hot periods is much more sensitive, although it was seldom that we had any morning below 6° Reaumur. It G° Ramour should be added that because of the light construction of houses here as well as the poor heating of the rooms with fire places, that the temperature feels relatively colder here, especially during the cold and wet weather.

p.59 The month of October represents the transition from colder to the hotter months

20220317_015 page 100

and one could easily refer to it as the waxing moon of Australia. The thermometer shows a maximum of 22 degrees, a heavenly pure air, the friendliest sunshine challenges the people to admire and enjoy it, but slowly the temperature rises in January and February reaching 34 to 36 degrees. If in addition the hot north wind seizes the plains and fills the air with its red-hot breath, it withers even the last bit of green, and forces man and animals to clamor for protective shade and to yearn for a cool reprieve.

Nature then seems as if it had stopped, for even the birds sit motionless with limp and half spread wings and with open beaks in the hope of capturing any cooling wisps of air.  During the rainy period, the paths turn into quagmires and become almost impassable.  Even in the streets of Adelaide it becomes difficult to maneuver between puddles and deep ruts in order to find a spot p.60 where the foot doesn't sink into the soft earthen mass.  Often even on the chauffeured paths the muck is so bad that the Ladies' Overshoe would sink if they didn't have 2-inch-thick steel hoops fixed underneath them.

The hot period on the other hand brings with it an entirely different yet awful problem. The slightest wind creates and raises dust clouds that once formed turn into whirlwinds and with its dirty veil of dust spreads widely and in so doing leaves behind its dust on every object inside the house. The south of Adelaide seems to be especially targeted by these dusty whirl winds and they are lately so strong that residents who happen to be out on the street at the time are forced to flee inside their homes.

Incidentally I want to reiterate my earlier claim that on the whole, the climate is to be declared as healthy. Climatic fevers and similar illnesses associated with the composition of the land do not exist even though a large temperature difference (the difference in one day can be between 16 and 20 degrees) sometimes happens. Towards the end of the day the cold suddenly sets in which may lead to rheumatic ills. One can guard against this harmful influence however, and those that have to work in the open, are well advised to wear a woollen shirt.

20220317_016 page 101


Adelaide and its immediate surrounds, the most important places in the Colony.

Earlier I had described where the chief settlements are to be found. The most important one is of course the capital of the colony Adelaide p.61 and its immediate surrounds. The city is around 7 English miles from the sea and 3 from the mountains and lies on both sides of the banks of the Torrens.

An important older part is the governor's residence which is situated on a slight rise within a rectangular reserve. It has a northerly garden all of which is enclosed by a perimeter wall of about ¾ of a mile in length. Further along are the Post office, the exchange, court house and several churches. The streets intersect each other in rectangular fashion and those heading towards the river are almost fully lined with houses. Those streets along the southern side on the other hand have many clusters of houses which are separated by unbuilt open land and in the beginning, I was totally confused by the sporadic clutter of housing. In the beginning, I was puzzled as to why the buildings were


arranged in such tight, messy and muddled way but soon found out that the reason had to do with property costs. In the busier parts of the city the property prices increase considerably so that land a foot wide by 100-foot-deep fetched 5 § Sterling and more, which is why those not so well off decide to build in the outlying parts - but even there the land prices are fairly high.

I was offered land 90-foot-wide and 80-foot-deep for 58 § Sterling and I heard later that it was sold for 74 § Sterling. When you hear, that someone, had used my suggestion and built 12 cottages there with associated yarding as well as a carriage way between the house rows, it gives you some idea of the small size of many houses in Adelaide.

Afterwards a new law was passed to make sure that all properties are to be fenced which is good because all streets are then properly delineated so that the newcomer doesn't wander about aimlessly or worse, doesn't venture into a water filled ditch. The only lighting in the city is from the guesthouses because the publicans are obliged p.62 to maintain a lantern there throughout the night and even though there are numerous pubs, the lighting is not sufficient due to the spread of the city and it is high time to change the legislation so as to improve street lighting.


The most important street for traffic here is Hindley (Hindly)) Street and its extension Rundle Street. Both are raised and graded, and its wide and in part raised footpaths are paved with slabs of granite for the pedestrians.

This is where the more significant stores are found and any new immigrant approaching from the port will no doubt be surprised by the rows of shops which from their external as well as internal display of wares can be favourably compared with the most elegant shops that Berlin has to offer.

There, where Hindley and Rundle streets meet they are crossed with the no lesser King William Street which begins opposite the Governors' residence, is 60 paces wide and divides the city from north to south. Here, in comparison to the rest are the grander buildings such as the new treasury, government buildings, the soon to be erected impressive post office, law courts and barracks.

Most houses in the city are small and single storied, containing mainly one and sometimes three rooms because the English don't like to


No 6 20220317_001, page 104

live with anyone but their own family in the one house. Many of their new homes are already two storied and mostly built of solid masonry. The Germans living in Adelaide are mostly in the eastern part of the city and their plight is easily gleaned from the names they have given their buildings which although they are meant for a single family, they house many. There is for example the (Lange Jammer) long lament' and 'short lament', German lament', 'Rosenlament' so named after its owner the joiner Rosenthal and yes, there is even a ' severe misery'.

Lament and misery prevails and the small and dirty hovels are often witness to a painful yearning by its owners to the distant homeland with bitter regrets of their reckless abandon in search of a better life.


p.63 Because Adelaide is bound by a baron treeless plain to the south and west, it is not sheltered from the frequent gusts of dust laden winds coming from these areas. A second, more problematic issue is the lack of potable water which is why the inhabitants are forced to drink water from the Torrens and depending on the distance from the river and the time of year, are forced to pay 5 to 10 pennies (Groschen) a barrel. The status of

20220317_003 page 106

water carriers is therefore fairly high. These use a sturdy horse harnessed to a two-wheeled cart, with a huge barrel secured to it which they drive down the Torrens to fill to then serve the individual households with water. The Torrens has plenty of water which stays fresh and tasty in the barrel but in summer It all looks a bit bleaker. The river is then so depleted that there is no water cover in all parts of its bed so that water has to be scooped from individual deep holes and puddles into the barrel. The influence of the hot sun however then makes it lukewarm and it takes a bit of willpower in order to refresh oneself.

North Adelaide, the second, smaller part of the city is in a favourable location. Here it is spared the dust by being on the right side of the Torrens which meanders between spreading parklands on both parts of the city, and along an outstretched southern rise. In the north, it is spared from the hot winds due to its elevation and it isn't short of palatable water. Because of these advantages, many English choose to live there and many fine country houses with beautiful gardens are found there along the road facing the Parklands. This, as well as the gothic styled church and nearby park p.64 which stretches along the side of the city extolls a much

friendlier presence than its sister opposite. In the valley between the two portions of the city they had retained the large eucalypts which constitute the so-called park.

In the centre of the depression is the deep river bed of the Torrens over which there is now a narrow wooden bridge because the swollen river has already demolished masonry ones on two occasions. Since however to cross the river one has to travel either half a mile upstream or downstream and because it is impossible to cross during the rainy season I had noticed that work had already begun on a new bridge in the hope that this time a crossing was chosen that is not susceptible to the forces of floods.

In close proximity to the city there are numerous villages as well as individual homesteads. Hindmarsh (so named after the first governor of the colony) had already been mentioned by me earlier as well as Bowden (not Broden) the village opposite and across the main road. Not far from there, and further west one can see Thebarton Bridge (not

'Taverton Bridge'sic.) and a bit further south from there or one hour from the city is

'Blackforest' ('Schwartzwald'). On the southern side of the city is 'Unly' (sic.) next to


it the newly formed 'Fullarton' a half hour further south within a romantic valley is 'Glen Osmond' with its lead and silver mines. In another valley which is fed by 'Brown- Hill - Creek' - a stream that never dries up and is popular with Adelaide's more affluent because of its beautiful setting. To the east of Adelaide, and almost joined to it is Norwood and at the foot of the hills is the quaintly built and significant Kensington. Along its side, but more north-easterly is Walkerville not Wockeville sic.) and Klemzig.

Apart from Adelaide there are many smaller towns which despite having less than 10 to 15 houses should at least earn p.65 some status and recognition. It seems that if a spot is found which is considered suitable to create a town, one should at least erect a pub, as well as a store that sells all sorts of bits and pieces and venues for some of the more important tradesmen such as baker, butcher, smith, joiner and tailor before it can earn the name' Town'

With this in mind, important and significant towns in the north are 'Gawlertown' with a steam mill which lies nearly 30 English miles from Adelaide. Ten miles further north is the rambling township Lyndoch Valley (not 'Lindocqvalley' sic. ) and another 10 miles further is Tanunda which is mostly settled by



Germans. In the south, there is Macclesfield which is also settled by many Germans.

Strathalbyn is close to Wellington which is located where the Murray enters Lake Victoria, Brighton in the Bay which is popular as a bathing resort and because of its location sought out for summer stays. Noarlunga and Willunga are situated on a fertile stretch of land which have recently received favourable attention from immigrants.

Settlements established by the Old Lutherans include Bethany and Lobethal about 40 miles to the north, Hahndorf 20 miles south and Klemzig 1 ½ hours from Adelaide.





The population of the colony, the English and the German colonists and their cultural and social harmony.

The colony has about 150,000 souls, 20,000 of which live in Adelaide. By far the largest proportion are English, the lesser German and in between are a few feeble tribes of

No 7 20220317 page 110

indigenous. If one were to judge the English nation on the state of the colonists in Australia one would, in my opinion, make an inexact one because the virtues of the colonists seemed to me to be low here, whereas their faults can be registered as high.

A sense of profound and lively nationalism p.66 prevails in respect to laws, political inclinations, diligence and dynamism and these are all attributes applicable to the English settlers in South Australia. They also display a lofty arrogance as well as partaking in a condescending disposition towards any foreigner.

They have a healthy disrespect for anything that isn't English. They are cold and calculating in their pursuit of their own advantage without considering the ruin of others. By not showing any virtuous examples themselves, the Germans will soon be on par with their English cousins and their shortcomings may even surpass them so that it should come as no surprise then that they haven't attempted to minimize the prejudices levelled against them by even the lowest of Englishmen who judge them with a degree of contempt. Only a few have succeeded at having their scientific or artistic skills acknowledged as valid and worthy and it should be seen as a timely sign of mutual

understanding between both nations, when the office of Justice of the Peace was recently awarded to a German.

The English colonist is part of a mighty and respected state as indeed is the Colony and through this connection he expresses his love for the motherland and boasts of its privileges and likes to hear others single these out in praise and respect. He follows with utmost fervor the decree and implementation of laws as executed by those charged to do so and a single constable is capable of maintaining peace and order should this application ever be necessary. The English colonist has the aptitude to get the best from a situation and to cleverly use it to his advantage. Cunning and conviction to apply his practical know how so as to extract in a most profitable way so as to yield a profit as best as he can which is an attribute he is well aware of. Should he be working, he does so with all his strength.

Here he does so without smoking or singing or gossiping, but just works - never overexerting himself, he allows himself plenty of time to recuperate, finishes the day punctually as soon as the working day ends evenings at 6 pm Saturdays at 4) and he mocks the Germans who have to catch up lost time p.67 and to toil an hour longer.

The English worker seldom works for a wage.


understanding between both nations, when the office of Justice of the Peace was recently awarded to a German.

The English colonist is part of a mighty and respected state as indeed is the Colony and through this connection he expresses his love for the motherland and boasts of its privileges and likes to hear others single these out in praise and respect. He follows with utmost fervor the decree and implementation of laws as executed by those charged to do so and a single constable is capable of maintaining peace and order should this application ever be necessary. The English colonist has the aptitude to get the best from a situation and to cleverly use it to his advantage. Cunning and conviction to apply his practical know how so as to extract in a most profitable way so as to yield a profit as best as he can which is an attribute he is well aware of. Should he be working, he does so with all his strength.

Here he does so without smoking or singing or gossiping, but just works - never overexerting himself, he allows himself plenty of time to recuperate, finishes the day punctually as soon as the working day ends evenings at 6 pm Saturdays at 4) and he mocks the Germans who have to catch up lost time p.67 and to toil an hour longer.

The English worker seldom works for a wage.

Instead he loves to take on a task for a fixed fee and I have noticed that employee and employer both support this system because that way the work is completed quicker and costs less in comparison to a daily rate and that way the worker can earn more through his industriousness. The English are hard to befriend and it takes a lot of effort to win his trust and friendship which in turn leads to total commitment and trust and one can depend on them in all sorts of relationships.

He is not assertive with his advice but will give it freely which one can be assured will be good. Yes, I have even found that once his interest has been roused, one can build on his willingness to help even further, which is more than can be expected from some of our German compatriots.

Inside the homes of the English colonist I often found a certain degree of restrained daintiness, no matter how humble their belongings. Their children too, especially the little ones were mostly clean and well-dressed but then again, the English housewife has only to worry about her domestic duties, as her husband would consider it beneath him - even scandalous, to send his wife into the workforce so as to make ends meet. This she does well - and he can rightly expect a well maintained clean and orderly household. The

wife will also wash and press on Saturday evenings so that his need for dazzling white garments can be met.

The German immigrant has denounced his fatherland. If, however he retains just some sense of it, he tends to repress it and succumbs to his new-found nationality and culture, which some do willingly because they are ashamed to admit to being German and would rather be English. One prominent gentleman told me that at a public gathering he began his speech with the words 'I may be just a German which became the most popular point of discussion by the English p.68 audience and is something which wont of course do anything to advance his esteem in their eyes.

Others who have been in the colony for a longer period have already become integrated into to the English culture and way of life. To a great extent they have mostly forgotten their mother tongue, become fully integrated and have thus found a new fatherland in Australia.

Some retain their association with the land of their birth which they carry lightly and may even question themselves 'what is the

German fatherland'?

Instead, the once heralded German strictness, German education, German loyalty, German

"gemuetlichkeit' as revealed in its entirety slowly gives way to a lifestyle enjoyed by the majority of residents in South Australia and yet, despite all this, and even if only tenuously, they still honour the German name.

1 blame the demise of nationalism amongst the Germans on the fact that the Germans lack a sort of strong bond in an intimate way, and cooperation in trade and mutual help or support would help in this matter. But there is little or nothing like it. There is some spirit of cooperation through the church amongst the Adelaide Germans but even here the attendance is very poor and the example set by the religious English means that the German immigrant wont at least work on Sundays so as not to cause any trouble.

The pastor of the German community, Kappier, is only saved by meagre offerings from some of his flock. All this, even though he is described as faithful servant of god-and so different from many of his German colleagues who with zealot like zeal attempt to out- do each other and gleefully rejoice when they successfully pilfer a member of a congregation from another flock. p.69 There isn't even a German School yet because those that have some capital prefer to send their children to the English school and justify their

decision as being progressive and that they at are at least learning English.

A health foundation has been established and moves to build a German hospital has begun in earnest and as my latest news tells me, a concert to support such a cause has already raised 150 £. As far as socializing is concerned there are no other venues other than the pubs. The reading society that was started about two years ago has started to decline and is hardly functioning now probably because of the meagre offerings collected to-date even though their brochure had promised so much.

I had taken much pleasure from the 23 June 1850 founded German Liedertafel which was something that inspired me so much and filled me with so much joy that I joined it with great enthusiasm. It will not only help unite the Germans here, but will also put aside any acrimonies with the English who also have an extraordinary love for this male choir.

The newly founded


Zeitung' by its editors Muecke, Schomburgk and Droege had always seen it necessary to report truthfully and with frankness and to represent the perspective from the German's point of view which is of course most beneficial. Although its longevity has recently

been under a cloud, they have an abundance of material in front of them, so let us hope they don't shy away from reporting any of the shortcomings which painfully greets the newly arrived German settler here.

The freshly arrived immigrant steps into a friendless and alien land. Hardly has a German ship arrived without attracting the curious but it also appeals to those that seek and meet them and to give friendly counsel for the new arrivals. Some of the older Germans colonists here that had earlier hastened to offer their newly arrived compatriots advice and help now leave them to their fate and have withdrawn from their humanitarian endeavours because they had on more than one occasion been met with scorn and mockery. I met for example the family of the blacksmith Diekmann from North Adelaide p.70 and saw in both him and wife persons that would open their hearts for the wellbeing of their compatriots. In their sons too, I saw healthy, strong and willing workers; but they all told me that a big portion of the immigrants were all possessed with a conceited arrogance so that it wasn't worth offering any advice. It made a pretty repulsive impression on me when shortly after my arrival in Adelaide I was warned from all sides to beware of this and that person because


No 7 20220317_007 page 117

they only tried to better himself at my expense but it was often those warners that others had later warned me about.

Sadly though, many of the warnings were not superfluous as many have had the bitter experience of being bitterly ensnared in deals concocted by older colonists and as a result lost their worldly belongings.

The effrontery of the swindlers goes even further in that not only do they take pride in their deceptions but are also of the belief that they have broken the newcomer in, that is, to have toughen him for any future condition he may face here. Indeed, they act as if to harden him so that he can emerge from his depressed and miserable state a stronger and wiser person.

Maybe they are right because those that have lost everything will, in his despair seek out their inner strength and thus emerge from their misery which may then trigger the will to improve their luck forever and because they will have learnt from bitter experience to be more cautious before attempting the next venture.




No 7 20220317_008 page 118


gorfictiger in feinen Unternetmarigent. jut Bette debt. 26er cber fo oft werben folde Saufaungest befönbers bett Samt licnbatce in bag bitterfle Gtend forfen; it bertient die soft nung, Summer und Gorge jerförett feltie strafe; et lägt es seben, sole es. geben wilt; luct in ainbaBinfer bie que Kenben Gebanten zu bertreibeit unit bätt fid; inberrier febi Getegeribeit. Benügt, Unbete Binter Dab Bidt fu fabiten; für berechtigt: Geides mit Oreidjeit du sergetten.:


Alas however, many a bad experience - especially by a family man - has led to an unpleasant ending where he loses all self-esteem and hope, Here depression, grief and worry have turned him to drink so that he seeks answers in the pub where he also tries to escape the harsh reality and to expel any distressing thoughts including those urging him to find bitter revenge at the first opportunity and to somehow redeem himself by giving back as he was given.

But as often as not, such deceptions can particularly drive the family man into abiect misery and poverty. He loses all hope. Grief and worry destroy his strength. He lets everything go the way it wants and in taverns he tries to drive away the agonising thoughts that plague him. He feels justified in using every opportunity to cheat others by paying like with like.

I have especially found p.71 life in the Colony as far as morality is concerned to be very



negative. Even men whom I had regarded as honest and upright became somewhat bitter and despondent after only a short stay here in Adelaide and thus allowed themselves to be exploited in unethical ways.

They must have many role models. There are men here who don't find it difficult to choose ways to increase their wealth in unlawful ways. Some of these are even highly honoured because of their wealth and were sent from England to Van Diemen land and after their punitive time there was over, settled over here and from the 'schooling' they received there had an excellent advantage.

He who is cunning enough to outsmart others is regarded as a clever bloke. The more honest one that has made a loss is labelled a fool. He who conveniently declares himself bankrupt has gambled successfully.

Usury is the order of the day here and the so-called 'shillings men' - those that lend 1£

Sterling charge a weekly interest of 1 Shilling.

That is from 20 yearly loan gives 52 in interest, giving them a profit of 250% and such people can be found amongst the English and Germans.

On top of this are all sorts of other forms of debauchery applied in copious amounts,




which on the one hand is as a result to the deprivations which many had to endure in the outback wilderness. Some who chose to go there did so without incurring any debt, whereas others became intoxicated with Gin and Brandy in order to forget their plight. The many pubs are therefore rarely without patrons and the publicans make a healthy profit despite the high outgoings.

Businessmen in Adelaide have assured me that it wasn't uncommon for men that had spent half a year in the wilderness, came to town with 16 to 20€ of which p.72 they spent 5£ on clothes and the rest of their cash is squandered on questionable associates and slutty whores that in their effrontery far surpass those of the cities in Europe.

Come Monday and they plead with the shopkeeper if they could hand back their clothes for half the amount they had originally bought there. In exchange they would get their well-kept rags back which they had deposited with them earlier. With the few remaining shillings they would return to the

'Bush', blissfully aware of their heady yet costly days.

There are a few intellectual delights in Adelaide. I have never been to the theatre but according to the promotional posters there



was a lot on offer. This happens especially between 7 and 11 and even scenes from Shakespeare's dramas


Dramen' sic.) that were performed but incurred many complaints about the boundless immoral content.

Open concerts were attended often and numerously and the orchestra even has some Germans members there playing with great passion and enthusiasm. At times, however the choice of music leads one to wonder whether to admire the audacity of those playing or to respect and admire the patience of the audience. The expectations of the latter are of course easily met as we ourselves at the Liedertafel have found out on more than one occasion.

There is no shortage of (civic) balls here for the enthusiastic dancer but as far as decorum is concerned I have no idea as I have not witnessed any. From what I have heard however, they are quite casual and relaxed.

1 1


Finally, I found that every time I visited the

'Courthouse' a number of curious people had gathered there to observer the public hearings.


Since every police matter has to be dealt with within 24 hrs. anyone who likes this type of entertainment can do so every morning. It is



after all very interesting. I remember attending one of these cases which because of the person implicated, aroused interest amongst the German community. One German implicated for participating in a profiteering racket p.73 received a clip around the ears in public with many witness's present. After the complainant had confirmed the facts of the case the judge asked the accused if he had any objections- to which he got the unflappable and somewhat bemusing answer: 'Nothing' because I hit him in all consciousness'.

He was charged to pay court costs and to enter a 6 month 5£ Sterling caution and swear under oath to promise not to engage with the victim.

In another bizarre twist to this story concerned one witness insisting that before he gave his testimony the judge had to promise to pay him.

1 add another tale of a more serious nature which should add as proof as to how easy it is for Germans in the English colony to become guilty and be punished severely under the English laws. A young friend of mine had a piece of land that he was farming which hadn't been fully fenced. Some horses had caused damage there overnight so he had


shot at them at daybreak to scare them away but in doing so had accidentally killed one of them. The owner, a butcher in Adelaide was most upset and bitter at his loss and would not entertain any private compensation, vowing to bring the culprit to the gallows.

Even though it would not have come to that, transportation to VanDiemens land was, - in theory at least, a conceivable outcome. In any case, it was a possible punishment for this sort of malicious damage, and enough for poor ' H' to fear. A warrant for the accused's arrest was duly issued but because he was in hiding until the evening of the second day p.74 he was, even though he eventually presented himself, handcuffed by the constabulary and thrown into jail among hardened criminals. We followed the ensuing proceedings with great concern. The plaintiff had to provide the evidence that the accused was really the culprit and at the same time it was in the interest of the constables to investigate the culprit because the more success they have in this matter, the more chance they have of getting a promotion and hence pay.

Two days earlier they had already investigated the shot animal in detail but


found no weapon in the home of the accused.  Two neighbours were summoned as witnesses and everything hinged on their statement. At last the hour of the hearing had arrived. Our friend was summoned from the guardhouse to be seated on the defendant's bench. Oh, what change one night in jail had made with the constant thought of the dangerous situation he was now in. The normally fresh and reddish complexion was now cold and pale, his hair now hung messily around his head, and his clothes looked crumpled and cast-off. The poor soul confided in me later that he had spent a horrible night in jail because despite any attempts at trying to keep his distance, his fellow inmates tried everything to impose their debauchery onto him.

Luckily the result of the court case went better than we anticipated. Even though one of the constables had tried his hardest to place all blame on the accused, the witnesses, under oath had cast some doubt, as to the true identity of the accused being made uncertain by the poor morning light. One could see the pleasure-delight even- in the judge's demeanour who promptly declare the accused free due to a lack of evidence.


The judgement over a crime (in criminal matters) is made by a jury which is convened every quarter year.  One of the favourite past times of Australian colonists is riding and driving. Investors arrive to the stock exchange on horseback, as do Judges, lawyers and clients to the court house, potential bidders to the auction houses as well as the doctor who also visits his patients on horseback.

p.75 The horse is used by the baker, butcher and milkman to deliver to their customers.

Old and young, gentlemen and ladies, laymen and clergymen, they all ride and mostly at a gallop because it is claimed that this gait is the least strenuous for the horse. I have often admired the way shepherds control their horses with self-assurance and confidence to keep their flock together. Mount and rider seem as one and know no obstacles and where necessary to bring back any scatty freedom seekers.

To drive one uses a 'cabriolet' or 'Gig' set up for 2 people. To transport 4 to 9 passenger a two-wheeled cart suspended on blade springs is used. Of the latter there are always several on the way between Port and Adelaide from 8 in the morning to 4 o'clock in the afternoon and they depart at quarter hourly intervals.


To signal a pending departure the drivers elects to blow into a small trumpet. One drives on these carts swiftly but uncomfortably; the seats are narrow and since they are open one is susceptible to the elements which is why the recently introduced four wheeled coaches harnessed with four horses are much preferred. Even the more outlying districts from Adelaide are now linked via intermittent outposts, one route even connects to Melbourne and from there goes on to Sydney.



The fate of the German immigrant with special reference to the status of skilled workers.

What then, does the German immigrant expect in Adelaide? As I have highlighted earlier, most of them experience some form of disappointment. p.76 Most at risk from disenchantment are those that have built their hopes up high either from their academic qualification or from their mercantile or artistic skills. For the young merchants, artists or literary figures there is no hope if they aren't strong in the physical sense because in the short or long term they are reliant on it.

Young merchants fluent in English may hope to have a better chance of earning a few shillings in a business or on a commission basis or with a bit of luck find permanent employment there. To establish one's own


'Grocery business' not only requires a significant capital outlay but they are already very well represented here. Even though some Germans have been successful in establishing such a business, others have lost their possessions or have amassed an insurmountable debt. | have found young people in Adelaide with expertise and enterprise who nonetheless eke out a miserable existence.

Soon they may become go-betweens, peddlers, door to door salesmen, or run around collecting debts for others, started this or that but no permanent line of work was to be found. Finally, there may be no other choice but to go to the 'Busch' that is, outside town to find work, and good luck to them if they found a job as a shepherd, a drover, 'hut keeper' or similar.

Harder jobs such as farming or mining may not suit them because of their physical inadequacies and if they haven't learnt a trade, they have no other choice then, than to find work that best suits their demeanour.

No wonder then that one hears about the aspiring theologian who literally grazes a flock of sheep in Australia. Doctors of medicine also in a similar dilemma may tend to their scabby patients or instead of the scalpel they wield



the slaughter's or kitchen knife. Pharmacists not able to work in a chemist's shop prepare

'beef' or 'mutton' meals for their hungry partners as an alternative.

p.77 On the other hand they may work as brickies labourer - (often jokingly referred to as the most educated position here in Adelaide), lime burning or mixing mortar. If they can't find work to paint signs, the artists are happy to paint the walls of houses whilst sculptors find work breaking quarry rocks.

Lithographers and engravers may work in the copper mines. Those dandies once proudly walking with a cane or fashionable riding crop are now forced to herd with an oxen whip and the once elegant clerk now goes door to door with a basket selling sausages, or loaded with a few pounds of coffee, rice, and sugar to sell and that way try to start a business.

Here you might meet a former hussar lieutenant carrying a belt around his neck carrying a box with offerings such as lollies, soap and various toiletries, or the cuirassier Cuirassiers (/ kwira' sier/. from French cuirassier,!!] pronounced [kuisasiel) were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe.

This French term means "one with a cuirass" (cuirasse), the breastplate armour which they wore. 12 The first cuirassiers were produced as a result of armoured cavalry, such as the man-at-arms and demi-lancer, discarding their lances and adopting the use of pistols as their primary weapon. In the later 17th century, the cuirassier lost his limb armour and subsequently employed only the cuirass (breastplate and backplate), and sometimes a helmet. By this time, the sword was the primary weapon of the cuirassier, pistols being relegated to a secondary


function.W 20.11.17 Who has found employment in a German pharmacy where his long legs are of benefit for the sick because he can supply them with medicines quicker. A third, once a member of the guard carried out the services of a house and kitchen maid, whereas a fourth, the son of a general who took the risk and spoilt his erect posture by digging the land.

I could, for all of these examples provide you with names, but will refrain from doing so, so that their relatives in Germany are spared the pain. Musicians may find some employment if they could instruct on a diverse number of instruments, especially the pianoforte but outside of Adelaide they would have to visit their students on horseback. A previous piano teacher from here did just that. After his attempts at farming failed miserably, he happily taught the piano and was thus able to feed and save his family. Economists, Inspectors of police, economic managers, bricklayers and carpenters are not essential in Australia. If these gentlemen wish to practice their vocation p.78 they have to follow the plough and harrow, dig with the spade, use the scythe and sickle, or start afresh using the brickie's trowel, axe or hatchet, because neither farming nor building require any higher qualification, whereas there would be


opportunities for the clever shepherd where their cunning and flair could lead to generous wages.

Most of the German immigrants have a trade and one would think that there was sufficient work available for them, which, in most cases however, is not the case. I will, shortly name those trades considered most important, and point out which of those are favourable or unfavourable. In general, I must say in advance that a great proportion of fabricated goods come from England and flood the market. They are so cheap that a craftsman here in the colony cannot compete thereby stifling his and any many other's trade prospects here.

One finds here in Adelaide large shops with clothing of all sorts, hand tools, porcelain, glassware, iron dishes, furniture, saddles and harness equipment, Gold and silver ware etc. and with some with bits and instructions missing so that one is left in the dark as to how to assemble it, as some of our society (think he means 1848 emigration society) found out at great loss.

Some capable smiths or machinists had started their trade by producing wagon axels, which in their eyes seemed a lucrative proposition, but as soon as they had


established and opened their business, the flood of cheaper imported products from England killed their enterprise because they simply could not compete.

One should not think that in Adelaide there is a shortage of professionals of any kind but instead, one could say that there is an oversupply. In the interior of the country there may be a need for a tradesman to settle, but even those that make the move there have to be prepared to do some form of farming p.79 because if no one calls on their trade skills they are unable to exist.

Finally, when there is a lack of cash and the high interest rate makes it hard for the impoverished tradesman to start his own business, or when the slightest mishap reduces his income, he is subject to the usurer and then has to use all his strength to service it. Bricklayers, carpenters and joiners, blacksmiths, coachbuilders, plumbers, tanners and brewers would be best suited in Australia because they stand the best chance of getting work.

In recent times the trend is to build with masonry and the stimulus to build in general is promoted - albeit still in its infancy - by three 'building societies'. Adelaide can thank its building boom for their development, and


those immigrants wishing to stay in Adelaide would be wise to join them.

For this purpose, one takes one or more shares and every week pays back 5 to 8 shillings (per share). From time to time numbers are drawn and the successful ones receive 40 or 80£ Sterling credit which they must use to build a house once they had proven ownership or rental of a property.

They pay back the money until the borrowed sum has been covered and until such time, the house remains mortgaged to the building society. If he is unable to use his share he can sell it on to willing builders with a slight profit or his number is once again publicly auctioned. The advantage for the building society member is that as soon as the share is drawn, he receives a cash sum to build a house. This he may sub-let which in turn helps repayments, allowing him to live rent free and eventually own the house outright.

Earlier | mentioned that our German bricklayer p.80 has much to learn from his English counterpart. In Australia our German adage about 'brickie's sweat' doesn't apply here as every job is paid pro rata with the advantage of quick and good work. What I have seen from English brickwork is that it is solid and good. In Germany, the


carpenters and bricklayers go hand in hand whereas in Australia it's the joiners that take charge and control of the whole building process. It is not just the doors and windows nor is it limited to just fitting out the mantelpieces but he also sets out the roof and lays the flooring.

All the timber is available from the timber yards. Timbers are sourced partly from the country, or from Sydney, van Diemen's land and Europe. From Sydney come the Cedar slabs, from van Diemen's land the palings for casings and roofing and from Europe Swedish the pine. (Baltic Pine)

There is not much work for furniture making. Tables, chairs and sofa frames are made sturdily from Cedar-wood often fitted with turned legs, although a large stock is already at hand and there are already magazines full of furniture. Since the joiner manages the building works the carpenter is superfluous and is therefore required to look for alternative employment. If he has any means he might join forces with 3 or 4 robust men, obtain an annual government license (he wrongly calls it 'Leisten') for 5€ Sterling to fell trees on government land and to split them for fencing or cut them for the building industry. Only


those with the required permit are allowed to put axe - to- tree and anyone caught without the necessary paper work will be punished, but this law is often disregarded.

For the sawing and splitting anyone can employ as many as he wishes. To make a success of it p.81 the entrepreneurial contractor has, apart from good tools also has to have a sturdy two wheeled cart, as well as four to six oxen. He must also have the means to support his business for three months because it is necessary to send the cut timber to be sold in the city where the timber merchant who will sell it, asks for 3 months credit. Another job the carpenters could do is ‘fenzen' (fencing), a job which is still paid reasonably.

Farriers, blacksmiths as well as cartwrights can count on employment partly because the demand for an increase in numbers for carriage works will require their services but also there are opportunities in the country to establish a workshop. Similarly, I found that plumbers (tinsmiths) were busy in Adelaide as well as in smaller towns in the colony because in the English household there is a lot of tin ware. In dairies too, they use a lot of large tin bowls for the safe keeping of milk.

Unfortunately, the supply of this material is in


decline and since the low supply means that prices escalate enormously, house holders and farmers are forced to make do with their damaged goods.

Within the profitable business of tanning and brewing there are often people employed that lack any knowledge of the craft and so it makes me think that those that are knowledgeable and well trained in this matter would be most welcome and so one of my fellow passengers (Fellow Princess Louise passenger

Carl August Heinrich Storch aged 47, Tanner from Unruhstadt with wife Juliane and 3 children) easily found work. There is a very large tannery here in Adelaide and because the skins are cheap and the tanning agents are plenty in supply, one can easily explain the prosperity of its owner. The quality of the leather in Australia was given high praise by those in the know. In no way inferior is the standing of the brewery owners despite the high taxes they have to pay. The 'Colonial - Ale' is slowly outselling the English imports and even though a mug of beer costs 5 pennies a lot of it is drunk.

Distilleries p.82 are outlawed and any illicit distilling is punishable by deportation. Shoemakers, tailors, bakers, butchers, locksmiths, saddlers, glaziers and barbers are, as far as Adelaide wages are concerned, in second rung, being a lot less when compared


to the top earnings. This is because they are in sufficient quantities.  In Australia the men mostly wear high lace-up shoes over which during the rainy period they wear knee high gaiters. The so-called 'Buschschuhe' or bush shoes have ¾ inch thick soles with little metal horseshoe-like reinforcements at heel and toe. The making of these require a lot of physical strength, at least that's what I heard some Germans bemoaning this type of work. A pair (of shoes) is waged at 12 to 14 Shillings.

A less robust or slighter version is made by convicts and are imported from van Diemen's Land costing 5 to 7 Shilling a pair. Tailors have little prospect of working because the stores are fully stocked with all sorts of clothing and the English wear their clothes until he has to change them for new ones. The more discerning English gentleman would preferably engage a more artistic French tailor to create his attire. From the tailoring fashionistas on our ship only one of them found work as a jobbing tailor for casual repairs and mending in order to earn a bit. His income was hardly sufficient to feed him and his wife so the latter took up a servant position which at least gave them free accommodation and so could at least make


ends meet.

Bakers and Butchers seldom find a position let alone accommodation in an established business because they already have sufficient staff. We had a very capable man on board who went to great lengths to obtain work but any hope of finding work in a slaughter yard was shattered so he tried to eek-out an existence by making sausages. But even here he struggled to get by because from his earnings he had to pay his rent, wood, light and also had to pay two people to walk around p.83 Adelaide to sell his produce.

On top of all this his sellers sometimes returned with their baskets still full and if then, the contents were spoilt due to the heat, his profit from several days previous was all gone.

Butchers are not allowed to slaughter in their houses but instead, they have to take the animals to the city's slaughter house by the Torrens where persons employed by the government do the slaughtering. The cattle are not struck as it is done here, but stabbed in the neck from a scaffold above them and then skinned and their entrails removed by labourers. The butcher only needs to pick up his meat to sell in the city, paying 1f Sterling per beast. Preine Louise Butcher 2 Butler


A pound of beef costs 3 pence, mutton 2 pence, veal (calf meat - kalbfleisch) 4 to 5 pence and pork 4 to 6 pence. Incidentally the butchers often incur great losses due to due to the heat and blow flies.

Locksmiths have little future in their trade of making locks since those imported from England are preferred on new houses. They might however stand a chance with work in the mining industry where blacksmiths are still needed. Saddlers are better off. Despite the many saddles that are sold at auctions.

Custom-made harnesses made here in the colony are much preferred and considering that farmers prefer to work with horses rather than oxen there won't be a lack of this type of work.

Paperhangers have little prospect in this line of luxurious work and instead usually make mattresses. One of my acquaintances assured me that he makes a handsome sum of money but as I surmised a few weeks later when he offered several items for sale, in order - as he says, - to make several urgent payments meaning that his claim of making a handsome sum wasn't as truthful as he made out. There is no shortage of glaziers and barbers. In the case of the former, if they are able to combine glazing with a glass-importer they


should do well and the latter if they can have a little shop front in their room they too should be able to earn a decent livelihood.


The English are well known for not being a friend of wearing a beard and they do in Adelaide as they reputedly do in England, in that when they meet a bearded German they greet him with words of abuse or with mocking gestures showing him the way to the barbers. They love to see the German adapt to their customs and to be shaved by a barber or to shave himself, just as they do.

Coppersmiths, machinists, potters, basket makers have very little work - if any in Australia. Firstly, they lack the materials which is why a talented coppersmith who as a result of his artistic works here has found some fame but now has to decide if he has to work for a plumber. Machinists may have better prospects at a later stage when the proposed railway is built or if coal is found in the colony and then the machinist may even start his own individual business. Up until now their skills have not been in demand as witnessed by a skilled hard-working optical instrument maker who was well known in these circles and who as I was leaving Adelaide worked with a mortar and pestle for a German chemist. Apotheker, der mit dem Stößer, dem Stößel,


dem Mörser arbeitet und die Arznei mit dem Stößer zerkleinert, C3%9Fer accessed 30.9.2017

As vet here are no potteries in Australia even though there is plenty of good clay available, especially in the vicinity of Macclesfield. Basket makers cannot find suitable material otherwise their work would be well paid.

From these short remarks, we can be enlightened enough to gauge the fate that awaits the German tradesman. Their plight would be even sadder if the wives didn't have the ability to take on laundry work and thereby support their husbands. German maids are sought after and earn 5 to 6 shillings per week which, if they were accomplished to work in a commercial kitchen it would rise to 8 shillings. Their Irish and English sisters are not particularly desired.

I would just like to mention just one more instance which, in my mind attests to my claim that p.85 many Germans in Australia are very unhappy. The last items which married couples relinquish must surely be the symbolic seal of their union, their wedding rings. Nevertheless, an Adelaide goldsmith showed me a large number of just such rings that were sold to him.





About the Natives (Indigenous)

Dispersed amongst the Europeans here, there live the individual small tribes belonging to the indigenous race of Papa Negros. The Government has taken care of them, by creating numerous sections as reservations so that they can live there unhindered.

A number of tribes live in close proximity to Adelaide, and it is even normal to find several huts occupied by black fellows - as they are referred to


by the English - in the parks that divide the city.

Their external appearance is repulsively ugly. The face is broad, the nose thick and lumpy, the mouth large, beset with huge snow-white teeth that remind one of wild animals. The main body is fairly strong when compared to the arms and legs which are thin and long. Depending on whether it's a happy or sad occasion, their whole body is smeared with a fatty ochre, chalk or ash so that one may initially question the true colour of their skin which on closer inspection is black-brown.

The black hair to the head and beard shines because of the copious amounts of fat that is rubbed into it and the red or white paint is often thickly applied. There are no artistic tattoos as often found in other cultures, but instead their chest, back and arms carry deep, circular incisions made by sharp shells.

They dress (clothe) themselves by wrapping a mat around P86 their body. Over their shoulders they wear a rug skilfully sewn together from sheep or possum skins.

Near Adelaide many wear scraps of European clothes which therefore make them a sight to behold.

I met a youthful beauty whose denim dress swept the dust half an Elle behind her, and a black dandy (sic) whose attire consisted of a white shirt, a vest, cravat with collar and white gloves which in all might be something worn by our best dressed young men.

-Avenum Beauty Dandy


There is by the way a law that no indigenous may enter the city unclothed and if he attempts to do so, a constable would expel him immediately.

The government has taken to distribute woollen blankets amongst them. Their domed or vaulted dwellings consist of branches covered with bark and reeds to protect them from the rain. These so called

'worleys' (sic) are preferably erected in wind-still areas, and the low access opening placed on the leeward side - in other words mostly facing north-east.

Inside a fire burns all night in part to keep the insects away but also because they fear the dark. It is for the first reason that the indigenous declined to move into stone buildings which were especially built for them and they fervently resisted any attempts to force them to do so. For the same reason they like to change their habitat regularly (from time to time) because of vermin - particularly fleas, which gives them much grief when they stay too long in the same spot. In the hotter seasons they don't even bother to erect their huts, and one sees them camped around a fire, comfortably smoking their pipe, joking and laughing like children and carry out all sorts of mischief.

Their nourishment is basic and whatever nature offers them seems quite poor. Those living close to Adelaide are a bit better off as they often receive offcuts from the abattoirs, and the little offerings from the whites enable them to buy tobacco and bread. Opportunities arise where without too much effort he can earn a few pence, for example when a rider arrives into the city and is looking for someone


to mind his horse, there is always a "Jemmy" (sic.) nearby to whom he can entrust his animal. I have also observed how the men collect branches from the tangle of timbers from the Torrens River bed at low water level, which are then sold by the women in the city for a few copper coins. Not seldom therefore does one encounter a Black carrying a bloody mutton head or proudly looking at the bread he had just purchased.

The men hunt and fish. Kangaroos have already been driven off but Opossums and birds still abound. They are adept at climbing even the tallest trees and with cunning easily prize the latter from their burrows with their spears.


On the Murray they fish with spears and nets. Apart from that, they enjoy snakes, lizards, woodworms (witchetty grubs) as well as roots and herbs for their meals. It is often the poor women that solely depend on these latter meals as the men just leave them to fend for themselves, unless there is an abundance of meat at hand.

During the day they roam around either singly or in small groups

And if by chance they meet a white they call out

"give me copper" or approach a colonist to beg.

They rarely leave without anything and some colonists have introduced not to reward those begging with a piece of bread, some cabbage leaves or even the leftovers of their meal until they have completed a little job. If the black is hungry enough he quickly learns that to carry water, split some timber or make himself useful in some way he will


But he doesn't understand why he should work if he is not driven by hunger

This is a complex issue and a concept that has so far not been overcome, that is; to engage the indigenous in a meaningful vocation on regular basis.

So far, from my personal observations and from what I've heard from others the indigenous Australians don't have that wild bloodthirsty character as had been attributed to them. Instead they are receptive to friendly dialogue, thankful for any help and tend to resemble enthusiastic children rather than inhumane barbarians.

Hundreds of whites live in isolated parts of this vast country without fear for their safety from the indigenous, who incidentally are disinclined to accept any influences of civilization. To date, all attempts at integrating them has mostly been unsuccessful and they continue their raw and wild ways, with actions we would consider repulsive.

True, one does hear from time to time of bloody deeds which they have done to whites but one goes too far to categorize them as the lowest class of humankind who barely rank above animals in intellect.

They do not- as so often witnessed, - lack the ability to comprehend and they are reputed to have excellent powers to memorize.

To date they have had little benefit from civilization, so how can one expect them to embrace it? Their


burden is often the result of necessity and dictated by their culture.

As far as any bad relations with and proven guilt against the whites is concerned, onus of guilt is often against the whites instead of the blacks firstly because they are often treated with gross disrespect which in turn triggers some form of reprisal.

So, when it comes to bad relations with the whites, they generally resist any attempts at assimilation or to embrace civilization and to date any attempts to do so have been fruitless.

From descriptions by persons that have lived amongst them for some time, in outlying areas of the country one finds an amazing similarity between them, p.89

their customs, habits and general way of life all seem alike and some minor differences may be explained by geographic variants.

The Indigenous divide themselves into small tribes which can have as few as 20 members.

The oldest members of the tribe as well as those that have brought honour to themselves through brave or heroic deeds and whose wisdom and counsel is often sought during disputes may have some influence but generally speaking, they do not have a chief.

If a Decision that affect the whole community has to be made, it is only by the men and women are excluded. The women incidentally live in a poor state of degradation and are virtually kept by the


men in oppressive slavery.

They have to carry all the belongings on their journeys and their burden is only made worse due to their small children whilst the men just carry their weapons which aren't even used for the benefit of sustaining their women. They even leave it to the women once they have reached a resting spot to build their huts and to forage for food. Since these poor women can neither throw the spears nor are they able to climb trees in search of opossums so that they are mostly dependant on a diet of meagre roots and herbs unless her man decides to throw her a bit of meat.

Their skills may be seen by the woven baskets and mats as well as the often artistically sewn rugs made from pieces of Opossum skins. As thread they use sinews from kangaroos which they take from the tail of the freshly killed animal and a sharpened bone is their needle.

The ways and means by which they are enticed (woo lured) by the men already hints at slavery.

A young man reaches puberty p.90 once he has a beard, but the first growth of beard tufts is ripped out and at the second growth he ventures off, accompanied by two or three companions to the vicinity of a neighbouring rival camp to lie in ambush and to abduct a woman he desires. This act of woman stealing is the cause of wars between tribes especially if the man refuses to return the woman. Some men have three to four wives and it is claimed that they jealously guard them.

They don't tend to love their children very much,


because it is usual to let only one girl survive and we were even offered one little boy for one shilling.

The weapons of the indigenous are very simple and consist of 12-foot-long, very skinny, light spears and short clubs (Waddies). With the first they hit their target from a considerable distance (from 30 paces they can hit a hand sized piece of paper) but if the target is further than their arm strength allows, a two-foot-long instrument onto which is secured at with a

покви с игел.

one end a kangaroo tooth which they nestle into the bottom end of the lance which they can then

Han nestled aganst the tooth and can Men be

catapult to great distances.

They use the clubs for close combats or presumably throw them at their enemy.

One New Holland weapon which however doesn't seem to be used by the South Australians is the

"Baumra" which is apparently of peculiar construction so that after being flung and has hit its target, it comes back to the thrower.

It stands to reason that, from these simplistic weapons that their wars can't be very destructive.

Preparation for which includes a war dance which each party carries out separately. Throughout which, words and other forms of incitement give each other strength after which the actual battle begins. The two parties face each other along the battle lines. The p.91 weapons to be used for combat have already been agreed upon and if they are to fight with spears the conflict begins after one warrior verbally provokes the opposition and hurls some spears at them until either some warriors are wounded or the spears are broken. Often, amongst

expart. woomera.


the melee, screaming women dart amongst them either to disorientate the aiming opposition or to protect their men with their bodies.

Should there be a desire to fight with clubs after the spear skirmish, a warrior from each party and after verbally abusing and spitting at each other, one offers his head, as if to prove the braveness of the others and as if to dare him to hit him. If he is given a mighty hit, he collapses. This doesn't take long and after, he gets up he take his turn at hitting his opponent who willingly offers his head. As soon as this has been accomplished, a terrible yell erupts and the enraged parties charge to engage in hand to hand battle.

When the indigenous have their larger gatherings, which can be as many as 300 people, apart from the war dances as previously mentioned or at other festive gatherings hold their national dance (Corrobries) sic. ( ???loss of syntax here)

These take place at full moon and for these nightly rituals, many precautionary measures are put in place. One party takes care of a hefty large fire as well as preparing the camp with dry twigs and leaves. The guests are received and the many women and children form a large circle into which the men march with a hint of military precision to then settle at its centre.

They are all at their finest. Their whole body, especially their hair is smeared with fat and red ochre p.92 and are then strewn with flame like patterns made from powdered calcium chalk.

As soon as all have settled, one of them starts a



melodious wail after which, one by one the others join in and once the chorus has reached its loudest crescendo they suddenly all jump up to begin the dance. The women remain in the centre and with their hands beat a fur, either rolled up or tensioned over their knees - the rhythm for the melody. The dance consists mostly of a mix of unusual body poses with a simultaneous movement of arms and legs. Soon the dancers stand on their toes and clap their thigh together, then outstretch one or both arms, or swing a club or green branch around their head at great speed during which time the chant goes on with the dance and from time to time increases to a far-reaching scream. European onlookers enjoy watching these festivities and in a way, feel honoured to witness them.

One can assume that similar festivities have religious meanings. These however are rare and are mostly about their fear of evil spirits, whom they believe influence all life, sickness and death of which they have a blurred understanding. They are convinced that after death they will be turned into white humans.

Should one of them die, they seek out the bad spirit

'Tong Kinjargall' (sic.) by leaping about and making loud noises in order to prevent him seizing the deceased. The funeral procession that precedes the burial of the body can be considered as having the same purpose.

The body is wrapped tightly in clothes and covered in furs and fastened to a stretcher which is carried by 4 strong men on their shoulders. This procession is accompanied by women and children singing in


mournful song. The procession is slow at first but gains in pace, until the bearers run as fast as they can. Suddenly they stop, fall to their knees and as if (p.93) possessed by the evil spirit, they tear at their hair and thrash about wildly. After this the body is returned and the mourners depart but only after one last yet deafening piercing scream. The women of the tribe as well as the deceased next of kin display their mourning by covering their bodies with a mix of charcoal and grease.

The number of indigenous has diminished considerably since European settlement which is partly due to diseases introduced by the newcomers and partly due to the increasing difficulty of being able to support themselves. If they are not amenable to adapt to farming or industry the race of the coloureds will be totally lost within a few decades. Sadly, any such attempts have had little success perhaps due to the attempts at educating their children in schools, to teach them to read and write and to introduce them to Christianity and the doctrine of salvation.

Instead they should introduce them to light mechanical work or agricultural pursuits and such handicrafts suitable for their immediate needs. If this were done, one would give to those showing promise a piece of land to work and make sure that their industry would lead to self-sufficiency. If this were to be achieved then it might also be possible to spiritually and morally assimilate them.

It would help to at least show the accomplishments this generation had made but alas so far, all efforts assimilation


have been unsuccessful.

In praise to the English government however, it should be mentioned that they take their responsibility towards indigenous welfare most seriously and that they are known to spend significant sums to improve their welfare.

They engage civil servants as


(Protektoren) who look after the rights of the indigenous within the Colony and to p94 ensure that no harm will come to them from any colonists.

They distribute food and clothing to their black subjects, they erect schools and employ teachers and it is a pity that no better results have as yet been achieved.

In the past the children of the indigenous after attending classes in the mission schools were left free to go back home with provisions given to them.

They were to have these at home but were usually taken by the adults who incidentally also interfered with everything they had learned at school.

For this reason, the authorities decided to provide them with food and board but parents often built their huts so close to the mission that there too they could meddle and influence them on a daily basis - especially the boys, who preferred to participate in the entertainment and activities of their lot.

In addition, the parents are not happy when their children are taken from them. This is because they see no advantage but only a disadvantage because there is growing concern that by attending school their children lose their own, indigenous culture


and they also see a decline in their authority and respect.

If one could only convince the parents as well as the whole community of the benefits. Certain incentives could be offered, to willingly entrust their children to schools so that they would all benefit from the process of integration.

One more thing; one shouldn't limit -as has been until now- to keep the children until their 14th birthday (girls often leave the school in their 12th year) but one should care for them for longer, boys perhaps seconded to a farmer, a

p.95 master (craftsman? or as a servant and similarly. The girls should be engaged so that they don't have the need to go back to their mob where of course all what they had learned at school will soon be lost. The children are quick to learn English at school, and there is much evidence to suggest that there is no reason to believe that they are incapable to gain knowledge and to apply it rationally.

The language of the aboriginals is reportedly widely varying with strong dialectic deviations and it is also fairly poor in scope. They only have two numbers mätä one and dankull two. Some other words are bedaio father, jaankaio mother, lubra wife, jnankö son, maika daughter, babukko head, kulbko hand, tünja foot, dako mouth, korlo eye, knappo I, ullnu you.

Benetit of Schooling for interation

astute observation