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Transcribed & translated by Lothar BRASSE






The family names mentioned in this article include: BRASSE, HAYNES, MUECKE, SCHOMBURGK, LAUN, BLASS, FECHLER, 




Departure from Adelaide and arrival in Batavia p.95

On the 26 April (1850) 131/10/2018 with my family boarded the deck of the 'Livonia' after a hearty farewell from my friends, especially from the members of the Liedertafel. My decision to leave was so sudden that word hadn't spread far, at least not beyond the city, otherwise many more letters would have


been entrusted to me as well as more greetings for friends and family members in


From those that did hear of my departure many - some tearfully -implored me to tell their relatives of their unhappy situation whereas others begged me to veil the truth so as not to burden their hearts. (to add to their sorrow) How dearly many would have liked to accompany me and even the captain told me later that he found it very difficult to resist their hopes and pleas p.96 to join his ship and leave Australia. He didn't have the adequate space so that apart from us there were only two other passengers, one countryman from the Lauenburg district (ca.50 km SE of Hamburg) and an instrument maker from Holstein (Schleswig Holstein borders north of Hamburg). The latter regretting that he was seduced by reports about Australia and to leave America where he did at least have work and where he intends to return. Both shared a space in the mid-deck with myself and my sons, whilst my wife and daughters found their space in two compartments of the small cabin.

How calm and how happy we all felt is hard to describe. We didn't think about the arduous, depredating and dangerous eight-month long sea journey ahead of us. Neither did we think


about the losses we had made, or about the unknowns and uncertainties which loomed ahead of us, as only one thought filled our souls: to be saved from imminent ruin. With inner thanks, I looked up to God who had heard our prayers and a renewed assurance towards a better future filled my bosom. I could not find the courage to return to go ashore again and I was overcome by an almost childish fear to leave the ship again.

Friends tried in vain to beg me to go to the city with them and enjoy the last evening in trusted company.

They could hardly move me to join them to board the 'Ceres', a bark from Bremen that lay to our side and had arrived recently with immigrants. Incidentally I still had this unresolved dilemma regarding my last loss in Australia because the goldsmith 'F' owed me for items sold to him 3£ Sterling. I was able to hold out long enough so that he at least paid me 2£ of what he owed and because the ship would sail from the North Arm the next day I could see me being robbed of this money as well so that I would be the poorer on our forthcoming sea journey. I especially rued the lack of tobacco provisions p.97 because on the ship it is missed most by those dependent on it. Although one only smokes the black tobacco in Australia, which at home may still


be bought here or there, and even this is not cheap because ¼ pound costs 8 shillings cigars on the other hand were a huge luxury item considering that one cigar of ordinary quality costs between 2 and 3 'Pence' but I did get used to the black tobacco and wished I had taken a small supply with me.

The 'Livonia' had taken onboard such cargo as flour packed in sacks as opposed kegs which as time would show later made things more difficult. There were also potatoes as well as dogs and cows. The dogs belonged to the greyhound breed with which the Australians entertained to hunt kangaroos. The cows were beautiful young animals and most were in calf and the captain had hoped to make a good profit from them in Batavia. The cows were loaded onto the ship in a most peculiar way. They were driven into the yard of the customs and at first someone tried to throw a noose over their horns which created the greatest difficulty because the animals were used to living freely in the wild and so moved back to resist the noose or even tried to break out. If it was ensnared, the roped animal was pulled towards a ring which in turn was fastened to the ground. Usually the animal resisted the pulling against the forces of the rope by propping itself firmly on all four legs.

With its spread legs planted firmly into the


ground it was only possible to prompt its advance by twisting its tail. Once their heads were firmly fastened to the ring a strong noose was placed over their horns, then fastened a hook by which then they were hoisted up. They were hoisted by their horns until a suitable height was reached so that it could then be lowered through the central hatch and onto to the bottom of the ship where it was tethered to sturdy beams. The dogs p.98 accompanied us on mid-deck where any remaining empty space was filled with fodder for the cows.

We laid at anchor in the North Arm for another day to get water which unfortunately turned out to be brackish with a strong salty aftertaste. I took the opportunity to collect some shells from the shores opposite and we eventually sailed off on the 28. th.

A favourable breeze propelled us towards

Kangaroo Island but as soon as it lay behind us we thanked our luck because as soon as we did, a storm from the South West seemed to force us back and quite close to the coast of Australia. Luckily the crew was able to luff the sails just in time because the storm happened so suddenly that the ship leant to one side and those on deck were compelled to quickly grab a rope so that they could stay standing.

The ship battled for three days against the


scorn of the elements but at last it calmed.

Only the high rising sea waves bore witness to its might and which only moments earlier had whipped its waters. During this tumult, my wife and children were laid up with seasickness which didn't worry me because I knew it would soon pass and they would recover quickly after the calming weather arrived. Sadly, though the journey to Batavia was becoming sluggish and uninteresting because with the relentless south westerlies it was impossible to sail around the south western tip of New-Holland, Cape Leeuwin and for eight days we had to crisscross so that we soon would reach R.W. then to S.D. until after all this time we were still at the same spot. At last we managed to round the cape but also lost 3 weeks and hadn't even reached the half way mark of our journey. Despite all this though the time didn't drag on. We didn't sight any other vessels except a whaling boat that passed near the west coast which added a bit of interest.

The captain who at the start was a little reserved p.99 became a little friendlier and because he had a lovely education which on having travelled to Havana, New York, New Orleans and Balparaise (sic. Valparaiso) had experienced many things which shortened many an hour by having a conversation with


him. The first helmsman - somewhat dimmer and without much education was, in the main friendly enough and quite pleasant. He was a stickler for neatness, tidiness and order, and seeing that he himself operated independently, he expected from those that didn't necessarily agree with him not to challenge the fact that he was a resourceful and hardworking seaman. He was also an artist, adept at model shipbuilding and one would often see him during his watch busily carving and one could easily call anything built by him as a true piece of art, because every detail was a perfectly copied by him in miniature.

The second helmsman on the other hand was the direct opposite. A seaman with reluctance, he didn't even try to replace his lack of nautical knowledge with examples of keen practicality and some of his claims only attracted ridicule from his fellow sailors.

Morose in his work he found his biggest pleasure in sleep, which even during his watch the urge to succumb seemed too hard to resist.

The crew were on the whole good and liked it when one chatted with them. They were ready to receive an explanation of things that attracted their attention.


Only the cook was disobliging and lazy with a discourteous manner. He was often so unsteady in his narrative that I habitually abstained from obtaining refreshments in the mid deck so as not to be near his presence.

The cabin boy finally admitted that he would rather be a sailor than a steward which would no doubt suit him best, not just because of his unhygienic ways but also because of his propensity to break dishes. Furthermore, he was not to be trusted, because not only could he lie shamelessly but couldn't always differentiate between his and other's belongings.

In the first four weeks we had a lot of company, because in the beginning we were encircled by seagulls p.100 later by flocks of Albatross and Cape Pidgeon which escorted us and, in a frenzy, greedily dive down for anything thrown overboard. The Albatross we saw here were the most beautiful specimens which outclassed the swans in size, especially their wing span of 8 to 10 feet. Despite their size however these wings are so articular that they can be easily folded together.

The 'Cape Pidgeon', so called because they are particularly prevalent in the Cape district, are cute with white and dark brown speckles which from their outer appearance look


somewhat between our ducks and pigeons and are a bird that has given us much joy to observe. This was especially so when they swam in great numbers next to the ship.

Albatross and Cape Pigeons are often caught by sailors using a fishing hook and bacon for bait and once we had 5 of the former and 8 of the latter on board freely running around the deck being hindered from flying away partly because of their weight and partly because of their tackle. The Cape Pigeons were usually freed and sometimes 'adorned' with a red ribbon as a 'mark of honour.' Only a few were gutted and taken with us. When the meat is boiled off and then fried it loses its rancid oily cod liver taste and becomes quite enjoyable.

The Albatross are killed for their beautiful down. Their meat is usually given to the dogs who it seems don't look at it as a special treat.

On the ship the birds are 'fished' and the fish

'shot'. They call it shooting when they kill their prey with a harpoon. In particular there is one type of fish the sailors prefer and for anyone that is not working gainfully hastens to join when the cry 'fish' resounds for all to lend a helping hand. The sailor calls these

'pigfish' for not only do their inner build share similarities with this animal but they also


deliver live young into the world. Twice when a female was cut up we p.101 found young but unfortunately we lacked any alcohol so as to preserve any.

These fish are found in all latitudes and pass through the ocean in huge schools and at times we saw many thousands. Once the ocean was covered with them as far as the eye could see and even though they are 5 to

7-foot-long they are good jumpers. With enormous power they can accelerate out from the water so that one can observe their approach from far away and so that one is able to gauge the enormous spread of individual schools. Strangely enough as soon as the ship is in motion they almost always aim for it and enjoy darting in front of the bow and like to escort the ship for a long time and as if they delighted speeding ahead of it and winning the race.

This form of fish play is however to the detriment of some, because often a crew member was successful in throwing a roped and barbed harpoon from the jib above which when it struck the body it disempowered the animal which was then quickly hoisted up.

The victim then uses all its might to distance itself from the deadly weapon but his strength is diminished to half once it is out of the


water. Quickly a sailor slings a rope around its tail and only after this is done is the prey considered secure. Only once when a 'shot' animal was able to free itself were we successful in killing another with a second harpoon because as soon as blood has been spilled, the school disappears and the sailors claim that the wounded is devoured by the others. The catch of one 'pigfish' is met with jubilation because its tasty meat is most welcomed by those that haven't eaten anything else but salted meat. Usually the cook will get busy to prepare a piece for the next meal.

The fish is brought to the lee side of the ship so that the blood P 102 drains freely without staining the deck. There it is gutted, the smooth skin cut off in strips which is cooked for its oil. The head is cut from the body and after being cleaned with sea water hung up near the cook's quarters. Its brains, liver, tongue and heart are reserved for the captain who, if he is in a good mood will share it with the sailors. The meat is very brittle especially when hung for a few days and a bit dry and similar to beef. My sons decided to ask for the head, to clean and keep which was something not so popular with their mother and sisters because their clothing would no doubt be generously smeared with the oil so that


everything would smell of fish.

The head is the size of a human head and extends like a beak. It is a foot in length with hinged bottom jaw which like the top jaw is beset with small, close fitting teeth about ¼ inch and cone shaped which fit into the opposing cavity. On the upper part of the head are air holes through which I have seen them squirt water and even in one instance where the animal was heavily wounded it squirted blood.

The unusual length of the journey didn't just raise the dislike of the situation we were in but also brought about other problems. The dogs complained to us about the overabundance of fleas by their incessant howling which usually drove away our sleep and our commands for order seemed useless and only the stick gave fleeting reprieve.

Furthermore, a myriad of small flies had developed in the moist straw so that whenever we had to go below deck due to bad weather we had to wrap our heads and to top it all off, we were inundated with rats impertinent enough to grace us with their many nightly visits.

As soon as p.103 the weather became favourable we spent day and night on deck and thereby avoided any such discomforts. Of


much greater concern were the losses of our freight. Seven cows had died, one of the dogs hanged itself on his chain and a second had to be thrown overboard because of a nasty skin disease he got as a result of the salty meat.

This was somewhat countered by two bitches giving birth, with one having 11 pups.

Friday June 14 we at last reached the entrance to the Sunda Straits ('Sundastrasse sic) after spending two days sailing in front of it. Already on Thursday we noticed the coast of Java but were still too far to identify anything specific. Our expectations were high because already in Adelaide my wife and daughters were told so much of the beauty of this strait. Despite all this however, reality surpassed all expectations. The entrance to the Sunda Strait, the so called 'Prinzenstrasse is the channel between Java and the

"Prinzeninsel' and is so narrow that one can overlook the coast on the left and right clearly with the naked eye. What a difference between this and the coast of Australia. From foot to peak of the mountains it flaunts a dense canopy with of one of the most varied displays of light and colour where here and there gigantic trunks emerge to raise their richly decorated crowns. The breakers extended for some distance and the scene was one of magnificent display where the 30


to 40-foot-high crashing and foaming waves constantly re-formed into countless little waterfalls so as to begin their backflow from the cliffs where they were bare, whilst all around they were covered by dense bushes as well as an abundantly thick canopy.

With this, the air was so aromatic so that one took pleasure to inhaled it and the spicy fragrance from the land was so strong that we, despite the considerable distance between us became heartened. Soon the straits became wider and deep bights cut into the coast of Java where on our left the islands receded. These islands are mostly cone shaped and as with the coast of Java is richly wooded. Many there seemed to have a similarity p.104 with volcanos in that they displayed blunted peaks with their centres hollowed out.

A strong breeze arose in the evening which was of little use to us because the captain thought it unwise to sail further into the canal because it was his first time he sailed these waters. Later the winds lulled and the night was so wonderful that I couldn't remember one ever like it. The pressing humidity during the day gave way for a refreshing breeze and a thunderstorm passing south of us had finally cleared the air. Above us the sky flaunted its heavenly stars, deep silence surrounded us


which was interspersed only by the foaming rumble of distant waves.

Midnight was long behind us and we finally sought our bedding but our desire to fully absorb the views of the coastline excited us so much that we went back on deck early next morning. During the night we received countless neighbours and were surprised at the number of ships that had popped-up all around us. Soon we were to have many more companions because from a wide bay there emerged 30 Malay fishing boats and wherever we looked we saw small and large vessels.

Since the windless conditions had persevered, the boats engaged in fishing came closer and we could distinguish the half-naked individuals and study the construction of their sail craft. Then suddenly the winds lifted and the big and small crumpled swing-sails quickly dispersed them here and there. Only the

'Boete'-the messenger or courier vessels - kept close to shore, perhaps so that they could maintain sight of their home-base through the defining smoke rising above the canopies.

104 cont.



We edge forward slowly over the following days because unfavourable winds were often interchanged with no wind at all but the close proximity of the beautiful coastline as well as the traffic of numerous Malay boats that visited our ship left us a little less impatient to get to our destination. The Malayans living along the coast seem to exercise a healthy trade in that they p.105 sailed towards the ships arriving from Europe to offer all sorts of refreshments which, as can be imagined, found plenty of ready buyers. Even our ship would receive several of these boats which usually arrived in the mornings and I wondered how they managed to venture so far from the shore with their heavily laden small 'Canots' (canoes?) against the fairly strong winds. The boats were laden with Bananas, Coconuts, Tamarind, Yams, (East Indian potatoes) Pumpkins, onions, Tobacco, chickens, monkeys, pigeons, parrots, eggs, corals, shells, fired clay vessels for decanting water, as well as other things in baskets and containers all made from bamboo. Soon a lively rag trade ensued because the sellers enjoyed the trade of swapping fabric and old clothes for their goods. They knew the value of coins very well and especially liked English silver and Spanish 'Thaler' with one even wanting to exchange a piece of gold with the


captain. There were three to four men on each boat. Some wore leggings and a cotton shirt, others a kind of loin cloth fastened around the waist. Around their curly black hair, they tied a colorful scarf (cloth), the skin colour originally light brown had no doubt through constant exposure in the open attained a darker colouration. The eyes of all were filled with spirit. They were lively and some would have been described as beautiful if it weren't for their teeth, which due to their constant chewing of beetelnut and tobacco wrapped in 'Ciriblatt' enhanced with calcium were coloured black which no doubt they regarded as improving their beauty.

p.105 cont.

Despite their lack of English we could almost make each understand and thus our negotiating became (even) louder because some sailors were of the opinion that the louder they screamed the better they were understood. I bartered a cloth and a small knife for a cute 'Zwergreh' the size of a rabbit in the hope of taking it with us to Europe, but alas it died after 14 days after our arrival in p.106 Batavia but I doubt whether it could have survived anyway because we lacked space to protect it from the influences of the elements.


At midday on the 17th we passed a village green amidst a clearing in a palm forest. It is a special place for fresh water and has a small Fort whose white walls shone through the vegetation over to us. In front of it lay a Dutch war ship which greeted us with a canon shot to which response we hoisted the Russian flag because the 'Livonia' had left the harbour of Hamburg under its protection.

Shortly afterwards we sailed through the narrowest spot of the channel thus entering the East Indian Archipelago to continue our course northwards to wind our way amid numerous islands and find our way to Batavia.

In the evening a favourable wind arose but alas it was too late and at 9 p.m. we had to lay anchor. If it had arrived two hours earlier we would have reached Batavia.

Even the following day passed by and again the anchor was laid this time close to an island which despite its friendly appearance carried the name ('Menscheneter sic.Menschenesser ? Man-eater cannibal which when we passed one, was no less named 'kerkhof' or 'kirchhof hence graveyard.

At last, on the 19th we approached the anchorage of Batavia. The sailors took it in turn to throw the lead for soundings and I was happy to see the dexterity with which they


threw the line. The sailor that does the throwing stands near the cabin just outside the ship on a ledge being with a rope tied around him and fastened to the ship. The lead is about a foot long, a few inches wide and cone shaped. It is suspended from a line to which colourful strips of cloth are fastened to indicate the depth. The sailor then holds the rope in his left hand in a way that he can release it without any obstructions, then swings the lead weight with his right hand in circles several times the releases it suddenly toward the front of the ship so that it often touches the water p. 107 some distance ahead of the ship. Before the ship has reached the spot, the lead has touched the bottom and the sailor announces the depth as indicated on the rope markings, by singing the number of tags. The favourable winds continued and at 4 pm in the afternoon and with full sails we entered the moorings of Batavia.

Just as happened in Rio de Janero the American stars went ahead of us, the

'Raduga' from Boston whilst a French ship followed behind. At 6 pm the anchors were dropped and we had successfully arrived.

Malayan boats arrived at once to offer their wares and even a ship vendor didn't miss the opportunity to offer his services, whilst a midshipman from the Dutch war ship was


ferried to us on a small boat crewed by Chinese to view the ship's papers and register the names of passengers. Close to 40 ships were moored there, two steamships and one war ship. Most flew the Dutch flag but we also saw American, French, one Chinese, and one German, the 'Prebislav' which we had already known from Adelaide.

Unfortunately, we heard that there was a problem with the intended cargo load and that we had to wait for it a long time. With this news our joy - which one gets after a lengthy journey to embrace landfall - diminished, because it opened the possibility to stay here and view the land from our ship for four to five weeks. We knew no one in Batavia with whom we could have stayed for these days and to stay in a hotel would be too costly and would dwindle my resources, even if they were ten times greater than they were which meant I couldn't even entertain the idea of leaving the ship. The ambience of Batavia didn't appear romantic to us at all, with its thick undergrowth that spread along the coast and close to the canal as well as several large houses which rose upwards with their red roofs blocking the view into the land and nowhere was there any elevated land.

Despite all this however, our gaze was drawn to it until darkness arrived and we swiftly


moved away.


At eight pm a canon shot resonated from the war ship whereupon all the ship bells answered to acknowledge the hour and a mighty tropical rain drove us off the deck.

Next morning, we, as well as the sailors aboard the war ship were woken with cannon shot and drum roll. We rushed on deck and soon a lot of activity was unfolding. A convenient land breeze enabled many small boats to take advantage and sail to the anchored ships in the harbour to offer them cargo or to take their cargo and bring it to the city. Three of these boats berthed next to our neighbour, another next to a ship destined for Japan, and soon one saw the Malays busily hoisting boxes and bales. Larger ships were followed by numerous boats crewed by Malays or Chinese with vegetables, fruits, fowls and all sorts of foods or packs of clothing, mats, tobacco Malayan and Chinese fabricated goods all for sale and soon, the boats aimed for us, the new arrivals.

A boat ferrying our captain ashore had just landed. He had left us with the promise of letting us know if he could also bring us ashore for a day so that we could get to know Batavia - even if just fleetingly. Despite the


heat, the day passed agreeably. The unfurled sun sail provided shade, a fresh breeze cooled us, numerous new happenings were most becoming, and even our attempts to communicate with the Malays and Chinese were entertaining.

In the evening I was keen to take a sea bath but wouldn't dare to because, as I was told, the waters were teeming with sharks and crocodiles and as much as the frilly surfaced sea beckoned, I refrained from diving in as the chance of losing an arm or a leg seemed too high a price to pay.

Instead I was

compensated with the sight of a dazzling thunderstorm which even outlasted a severe rain burst which went on right through the night. As a result, a surprising outlook, panorama, view greeted us the next morning.

P. 109 The air had been cleared, the curtain of haze was lifted, and with Blissful delight the eye could focus on the rich background of a landscape framed by a blue mountain chain.

Already by 6 am however everything became hazy, one cloud after another rose up and soon everything was foggy and clouded.

The day had begun pleasant enough and it should end even better. At eight pm we saw the captain return to the ship with two gentlemen. One gentleman, 'Herr Heilboth'


greeted us as a fellow sufferer because he too had been in Australia earlier but had also left after some bad experiences there but found a lucrative position in a Batavian trading house.

The other, also engaged at a Batavian business house was the brother of two of our fellow passengers on the ('Princess) Louise

"and had come to meet us so as to enquire about the fate of his brothers.

The first gentleman was especially happy that we in his words; saved ourselves from Australia' and his animated and engaging ways warmed our souls. The biggest surprise however came from the Captain when he handed us a letter from a shipowner via Mr.

Schroeder, the chef of a German trading house there.

Imagine our surprise when the correspondence expressed in a most friendly manner an invitation for me, my wife and daughters to stay as guests at his house for the duration of our stay there. The boys would also be found accommodation soon. I can still see the beaming faces of my family to this day. Their burning desires were fulfilled, their boldest wishes surpassed. I myself was so taken aback, amazed, astounded by this wonderful-or as I like to say- tropical hospitality that when it came to be realized I couldn't quite believe it, but the urgings of


the captain for us to gather all our necessary belongings so as to go and set ashore soon tore me from my state of shock.

I hurried to pack the necessary clothes, consoled the boys who would of course have liked to join us, with the assurance that they would soon follow p.110 and was ready for departure after one hour. My wife and daughters were successfully transferred into the boat via a swaying ships ladder and so, with anticipated high expectation, we drifted off towards the shore. Whilst being ferried my daughters placed their hands into the cooling waters but were quickly told by the Malayans to refrain from doing so as it wasn't without danger because crocodiles that suddenly surfaced could easily grab things dangling from the boat. They also assured us that even at mid-day it wasn't uncommon to see these monsters lie motionless on the moorings of the harbour. This is something which I have seen having observed one of these animals for several minutes after returning to the ship. It had a length of about25 feet and lay there motionless like a tree trunk (on) by the water. Without making the slightest noise it appeared at the side of the boat and with the same stealth dived back under again.

On our trip we paused to admire the original art of ship-building by scrutinizing a Chinese


boat which although seemed rather plump in proportion, was richly decorated with carvings and paintwork. After this, we reached the channel which enclosed the moorings made from strong squared stones that stretched deep into the water. Even though the sea seemed fairly calm, the waves crashed into the groin with some force and from time to time spraying its white foam over it. On these walls as well as in the

muddy, murky waters close to the shallows Malays were busying themselves with fishing, using nets weighted with lead spheres which they then threw out in a circular motion. The sides of the stone wall were teeming with small and large edible crabs which made the small gaps and joints of the wall their homes.

Soon we also saw the head of a water snake which as we came closer retreated shyly. The swampy shores were covered with a willow like shrub and the little voice-like chirping tones that emerged from it reminded us of our little singers at home. But the sight of stands of tall trunked palm trees quickly reminded us of being in the Indian tropics.

The further we p.111we ventured into the channel the livelier it got. Numerous Malaysian vessels lay along the sides with some acting as home for the whole family because men women and children seemed to


be occupied with domestic chores there or just lay on deck puffing a cigar, protected from the sun in the shadow of mats made from palm leaves. Others had by now prepared their wares for sale tomorrow to the ships moored there, whereas others were already heading to the channel exit.

Amongst these would undoubtedly be coasters because from their front and aft decks the sheen of canons could be seen.

These were arranged in such a way as to be able to be pointed to all sides- a cautionary practice which as we heard later wasn't at all unwarranted because these Indian waters are continuously made unsafe by sea pirates.

Sailing between some of these ships and past some small forts we neared the customs house whose white washed walls blinded our eyes as we approached them.

Having landed at the hall we were cordially welcomed by Herr Schroeder who invited my wife and daughters to take a seat in his coach.

I shared a carriage with the captain and so began our ride to Herr Schroeder's residence.

End of Chapter 10



Our stay in Batavia.


Never before have I been fulfilled with such interesting sights that were imposed on me than during the trip from the custom's house and the home of Herr Schroeder. I wish I had a hundred eyes to study, scrutinize and admire the peculiar bustle that defines the daily rhythm of the Malay and Chinese folk here. There the most peculiar yet interesting

arholes implements were laid out for sale, as were the

fantastic miniatures, all so picturesque and to be viewed and admired on both sides of the path.

In the beginning p.112 the path led us into a shady avenue through an old part of Batavia past a town house then into a street where in the first section, one saw part shopping halls and places for business managed by European merchants. The second section was predominantly occupied by Chinese tradesmen which in part work in the open, in front of their houses or are busily occupied in an exposed workshop. Eventually the houses stood more separately with bigger spaces


between them and the path led us past grand, palatial dwellings which were all set within gardens and surrounded by the most magnificent display of tropical plants.

With delight the eye could rest here, on the sensual with varied palette of sumptuous greens, and there, onto the graciously styled villas, then onwards and towards the picturesque bamboo huts of the Malays, neatly tucked between coconut and banana


Again, the character of the city changed and then we came to the most prominent part. On both sides of the wide canal stands one grand house after another and here stands the palace of the Governor, over there the first-class hotels and the homes of the wealthiest trades merchants.

A wide green, around one mile in circumference and named 'Koenigsplatz'

'Kings Plan' borders onto this part of town.

The park forms a regular square and is not only surrounded by an avenue of Tamarinds but also by stately homes from which the Lutheran Church protrudes with its black spire which we had already noticed from our ship.

After we had crossed the 'Koenigsplatz' we came closer to the home of our host. Koengoplan Koenysphtz


The carriage rolled through the gate heading towards the villa which is embraced by green hedges and magnificent shady trees. On the steps leading to the entrance hall was the lovable housewife which approached us with the warmest and most sincere greeting so that we knew we were most welcome guests.

The rest of the day passed with all sorts of pleasures, but one of the first p.113 and most exquisite was a glass of delicious water which tasted so much better than the brackish ship's water we brought with us from Adelaide.

No lesser pleasure did I incur from smoking choice 'Manila' cigars which more than compensated for any earlier unpleasant tastes. Two rooms had been prepared for our stay and since the captain was also a guest there the host had found temporary accommodation for the two gentlemen that normally lodged there at his trading house.

I asked myself on more than one occasion how we deserved all this hospitality that was bestowed on us and it was of some embarrassment that these dear people would take no more than my most heartfelt thanks.

But even this seemed superfluous and if any reward were needed, it seems that the grateful expression of our smiling faces made it all worth their while.


Although we were somewhat challenged by the day's many and varied experiences, we found it difficult to retire from the pleasant conversations because both parties had a lot of questions of our experiences with our somewhat muddled knowledge of political conditions in Germany, our fate in Australia as well as the myriad of new experiences of life in Batavia offered so much conversational substance that no one thought about physical fatigue.

Only my youngest daughter

succumbed to tiredness early and went to bed. She was however disturbed in a most unusual way.

The beds in Batavia are nearly as big as a room in Australia and are often over 6 foot squared. To protect against mosquitos there is a muslin canopy over the four corner posts and curtains hang to be closed off on all sides.

One sleeps on mattresses and covers oneself with light crocheted blankets. Now imagine her surprize. No sooner had she lay down and the curtains from the neighbouring bed open and a brown Malayan appears with a huge rod in his hands which he thrashes to all sides and administered hefty beatings.

p.114 Her immediate thoughts were that it she would be next in line but in the light in


her bedroom that was constantly on she noticed the Malaysian just in time and got away with a mere fright but suffered much torment from a mosquito that somehow survived the air beatings, because just one sting from these annoying guests can steal the peace the whole night long.

Despite not being tormented by them I had a restless night. During my stay in Australia I was stricken by rheumatic cramps which reoccurred from time to time in Batavia until they disappeared again during our sea voyage. As a result of the pain I had left my room at sun rise and stepped over the Malayans that slept in front of our door into the garden. An, aromatic fragrance streamed towards me. In a garden so rich in exotic trees and amid the exchange of the cool morning air I rejoiced at the display of the most exotic plants I had never seen. The Muscat tree with its shiny foliage and apple like fruits, the mighty Tamarind, the densely leafed Cocoa with its red coloured pods, the alternating Mango and Cinnamon trees exchanged with others, as yet unknown to me with one reaching to the summit and covered with yellowish flowers, which I had seen the day before being decoratively worn in the black hair of the Malay. It expelled such a strong fragrance that one couldn't be near it for very



Soon it got lively. The Malaysian menials (servants) many of which lived with their extended family on their 'erbe' (inheritance) began with their tasks. Stable boys led the horses to the river or placed green feed in front of them, the yard and paths of the garden were swept, shrubs and flowers watered, the cook prepares breakfast, for which the table in the gallery overlooking the garden which had already been set the night before. After 6 am the host appeared in a white, light wrap to bathe, and to douse, soak and shower himself with water just taken from the well. In the bath house I found large p.115 clay vessels, large enough to hold 20 buckets of water. They were all filled with water and serve to filter as well as keep the water cool.

Some Europeans prefer river water to that from wells and claim it to be healthier but I found the latter, especially in the elevated parts of the city to be excellent. In the lower lying areas, it has a boggish aftertaste which is why an artesian well is most desirable in the

'Koenigsplatz' 'Kings Square'.

At 7 am breakfast was ready. It consisted of tea and coffee, white bread with butter, meat, eggs, and a small slice of black bread as


a delicacy. The ladies appear in a long, white morning gown 'Kabeia' (?) which they wear until 4 in the afternoon, which custom was much appreciated by my wife and daughters - indeed, so much so that they wore them in the first few days.

At 8 pm the gentlemen drive to the 'Comtoir' Or to the 'Toto' that is, to the gambling pools, to the older parts of Batavia where they stay usually until 5 in the afternoon. In the meantime, the women care for the children which each have a 'Babu' or carer which also busies herself by keeping house.

At 12 o'clock they have a warm breakfast after which they rest, then refresh themselves and read a book in the lobby or partake in a feminine task and await their returning husband. If the 'Overland Mail' isn't being dispatched their wait won't be long. Often after 4 pm the streets become lively when one carriage after another rolls past until finally the husband arrives to the friendly greetings from wife and children especially if, as a considerate husband he was astute enough to have promptly fulfilled all wishes and tasks as requested by his wife.

The rest of the day is for recreation and for pleasure. After the gentlemen have changed their clothes and done away with all traces of


their daily chores, they either chat in the lobby or, close to the house, partake in a small walk or take to horse or carriage until 7 pm to undertake another excursion.p.116 At around this time it is also customary to sit at a table until 8 pm to succumb to the delights of European and Indian produce. After this it is time for visiting. Visits are made and received.

Carriages escorted by torch bearers roll on and one sees elegantly dressed women and gentlemen in the sparkle of well-lit front galleries, grouped around tea or gambling tables, whilst the brown servants rush, darting here and there to satisfy the wishes of the masters and guests.

German families in Batavia try to have one day set aside where they can be assured to find one of their compatriots at home and the nonappearance of an acquaintance can lead to ruining their friendship.

This sort of pressure is not suitable for continuing an agreeable evening especially since these tightly knit circles of friends usually include the same persons they meet at other venues.

But that's how it is and it is difficult for those that find no pleasure at the gambling tables and we can't blame them if they prefer to spend the night at home with a good book to


read and to forsake spending time with a vawningly boring compatriot and to withdraw from his sleep-inducing influence.

With this however, one shouldn't conclude that our countrymen in Batavia lack any sound education or shun the pursuit of scholarly delights. No way! I have not only found a deep and lively interest in proceedings in the fatherland but also a rigorous interest in art and science but also a civilized knowledge of German literature. In their defence, one should look at things favourably considering the impact that the climate has on their mental alertness.

p.117 This is all evident as soon as a new event with invigorating power steps closer to them, so that every new appearance is enthusiastically welcomed. It represses the daily routine, explodes the shackles of the mind and brings forward the German

'gemutlichkei', the innocent prank, the reinvigorated humour all bubbly, fresh and bright.

Despite the enjoyable evening hours, I will now reflect on the enjoyable time spent in the circle of our dear Batavians, who often see midnight as the focus of their goal.

Especially important in the life of Batavian

Europeans is the despatch and arrival of


overland mail or the steam boat that transport letters between Batavia and Singapore. From Singapore the route continues to Ceylon, Bombay, Suez, Cairo, Alexandria, Trieste or Marseilles then on to London.

In the days before departure there is a flurry of work, in the early hours the merchants run to the 'comptoir' or trading house and come back late and yes, even parts of the night is used to expedite the letters. The women sit just as incessant to inform their loved ones of any detailed information: news and how they yearn to be reunite with their folk at home, because despite the lush, luxurious life style, despite the tropical nature and all its delights on offer, the most inner desire to return back to the fatherland lies deep within all. This was something that was clearly exemplified, by the emotive cry of one lady who lamented:

"Oh if only once I could see a defoliated tree


The arrival of mail on the other hand brings joy and pleasure. With haste the newly arrived letters are ripped open, skimmed through and once satisfied that everything at home is in order, a comfortable seat is found where the readers immerse themselves deeply to scrutinize each word as penned by their loved ones at home. The evening parties


are energized when one has this, the other that to report and only the latest issues on political matters is something no one knows more than any other, lest he obtained an advanced edition of the paper.

p.118 In a broader sense Batavia encompasses the older part of the city which is not far from the sea shores and the newer parts which can be identified by their peculiar names and consist of the European, Chinese and Arabian districts. The first is located near the large canal and in part still bears traces of earlier grand luxury villas but now mostly consists of commercial warehouses and stores of European merchants. They no longer use any of these villas for housing and many parts lie in ruin from which the undergrowth proliferates and runs rampant covering many of the walls from which one can see how the city once spread from here along to the shores. From early at 9 until 5 in the afternoon life here is lively. Coolies

p.118 are busy carrying goods from the ware house to deliver them onto ships lying in the channel, or to fill the ware houses with freshly imported European goods. Even the heaviest articles, are carried by tying them to a bamboo pole which is then carried by 12 or more on their shoulder. In front of houses small 'Palatins' await.

These are small


carriages that hold just two people sitting opposite each other. These are supplemented with an elegant carriage available to agents because even the shortest distances have to be made using a carriage partly because of the heat and partly because it's socially unacceptable for the whites to walk.

Life is at its most lively amongst the auctions which, depending on the objects for sale are either held in the open or larger halls. Even the goods from our ship were dispatched this way and despite a ship with a similar load had arrived from Sydney, the sale went well. The dogs were particularly popular because some sold for 70 others a just a few 'Gulden' a piece. Greater interest was reserved for the horse auction. These were brought in great numbers from 'Malassar' (sic.), and was a race small in stature yet spirited, but with little stamina which is tolerable because p.119 during the day they are seldom used for many hours and because they are part of a larger stabled team they are easily interchanged.

The horses looked a bit worse for wear from the sea journey so I was surprized that despite this they still returned 150 to 200

'Gulden' ('Guilder') each but as I heard, the Chinese favour markings on them such as white spots and will pay large amounts of money for these. So too, the Malays value


certain peculiarities only known to themselves and once they have found the right one, bid hard against each other to get possession.

The ware houses of the European merchants are filled with all sorts of objects and several

'Tokos' or open shops brimming with luxurious articles so that hardly a woman can pass by without fulfilling, her requirements.

Once the visitor has admired the first hall with its display of Chinese and 'Lyoner' silks,

'Fauteuils' and American 'Rockingchairs', carpets and mirrors, porcelain and Chrystal ware, copper engravings and oil paintings, the most diverse range of fashion apparel from Paris and London. Next to it are the artistically decorated goods from China and Japan all exquisitely displayed. His attention is then drawn to the display in another hall with its rich, generous array of delicacies from Europe.

Here are long rows of glass containers with preserved and dried fruits, over there cans with preserved vegetables and meats, butter in tin cans, Westphalian ham, and 'Mettwurst' from Brunswick. As he proceeds he sees an assortment of wines if he ascends a staircase he can still see the sparkle of the original villa's gilding through the new green oil paint.

He will reach the upper level where he can see the display of weapons of the wild people


of the Sunda Islands - spears and arrows with and without poison, swords and daggers in many forms often with luxurious handles, shields decorated with human hair. The other victory trophies made from human teeth are witness to the warring nature of the natives from Borneo as well as the other islands from the East Indian Archipelago.

p.120 Adjoining the European quarter are to the west and south the Arabian and Chinese quarters respectively. The first is scarcely populated because the number of Arabs compared to earlier times has been greatly reduced and everywhere we can see traces of neglect. Of the latter, they are a much denser community and forms the core of the trade here. The Chinese artisans and small traders have their homes in small but deep buildings where the front portions are either for work or trade so that everywhere one can see activity and lively transactions. There is also a fish hall protected from the sun's rays by a screen of light bamboo as well as vegetable and fruit markets. The European ladies rarely visit it because of its scattered nature. Apart from fish all produce for the kitchen is delivered to their homes. All other items are brought to them by their husbands. We sampled some of the fruit from the Chinese merchants and must agree that they are


preferable above anyone else's. Towards the east and south, maybe just over one German mile away there are more suburbs or rather newer districts conjoined to the old part of the city.

The suburb of 'Weltesrede' has its beautiful Waterloo square the stately Government House, a well- appointed hospital, extensive barracks as well as the friendly homes of the officers and bureaucrats. Parapattan is in the vicinity of the 'Koenigsplatz'

with its grand villas. Krawat is where the Europeans live as well as the affluent Chinese on the so called 'Erben'(inheritance), plots of land which apart from the usual main house with surrounding gardens also has housing for the Malaysian servants as well as the necessary stabling.

Housing here is without much variation and mostly built in the same style. The entire front of the building represents an entrance hall which sits on stilts. p.121 where the evening is spent. This is why apart from some 'canapes' they also have a number of comfortable bamboo armchairs as well as bamboo tables with marble tops.

One of the main requirements is to have plenty of lamps, because the Batavians love to have brilliant, bright lighting and would, so I


believe rather go without food just so that light can stream into their gallery-like house front. It makes a peculiar impression when despite all the glitz, there are only two people sitting at the chess board or the lady and master appear a little lacklustre and bored, at the tea table.

From the entry Hall one enters directly into the inner rooms or into a wide hallway which leads through the middle of the house to the rear gallery with rooms on either side of it.

Often a covered walkway stretches all around the house which is a convenience particularly valued during the rainy season.

Associated with each of these new district is what they here call 'Malayan Camp'. These camps consist of houses made from bamboo and lived in by the Malays. They are shaded by fruit trees, surrounded by 'Pisang' and 'Ciri' plantations from which rise the slender trunks of the Cocos palm or the 'Rattle Tree'. The small yards in front of their houses as well as the paths that wind through the camp are swept clean every day and any sweepings are burned so that dangerous reptiles can't easily nest in them.

Nearby the neighbourhoods of Batavia despite being quite flat, are graced with picturesque landscapes. If one travels through

them during the cool of the evening one can see the lush and grassy paddocks which are intersected by bushes, or pass the luxuriant rice, sugar cane and pineapple fields as well as the wide spread Chinese graves. When all is seen by moonlight the imageries belong to some of the best pleasures which I have enjoyed in Batavia.

I would have liked to take a trip further into the interior but the associated high cost as well as the fact that one needs permission from the authorities made me decide against it.

One has to obtain approval because the Dutch rulers here in Java that preside over the 5 million p. 122 people rightly don't want to risk any danger by allowing any strangers to have unrestricted contact with the native people since they, the reigning power are only consequential and only able to remain in power there because they understand how to maintain the symbiotic power play between the individual rulers of the land.

Even so, from time to time there are attempts by the indigenous to rebel and rise against the whites and should these incursions expand and the fanatics - urged by their priests-succeed in a few lucky victories it may lead them to conclude that the might of the Dutch


power is not unshakable, and that it is indeed possible to put an end to their invincibility and hence their rule.

The bloody war with Bali, a small island on the East coast of Java and one which costs many lives, is defended so vehemently by the Dutch so that, everyone's utmost confidence in their

'system' is maintained. The realization of the possibility of a widespread uprising has apparently led the administration to organize all Europeans living in Batavia and to organize them into a local militia.

Every white person up to 40 years is compelled to join one of two outfits, either the mounted or the foot militia and also to take part in monthly exercises. For anyone not participating and without a valid excuse, is fined with a hefty penalty.

The white population of Batavia belong to the higher social standing which includes Doctors, chemists, artists and scholars, military personnel and bureaucrats. They usually lead a high life with the consequence of succumbing to the influences of the weather.

There is seldom a glowing face amongst them and most noticeable was the widespread greyish taint amongst the women.

Most of them had probably hoped not to end their life in East India but secretly hoped that


once they had made their fortune or completed their period of service (one year in the Colony counts for two service years in Europe) p. 123 they would receive the pension and then go back to Europe.

A peculiar custom has evolved amongst a number of whites in Java and that is to keep an indigenous maid or concubine. This was especially so amongst the doctors and officers that had spent longer periods on inland stations. Those with insufficient means to marry a European and to maintain a household in keeping with relevant local requirements, so that they often challenge the authorities and entered into such relationships.

Strangely enough, this has not caused any resentment or aversion from European ladies when they receive whites that are in such a relationship into their drawing rooms or at worst, tend to just ignore this sort of relationship with an indigenous. The maid will not p.123 show herself or be present should her master entertain guests and will only sit at the table if the guest is a close friend or is unmarried. In Batavia the maid can be dismissed at will, but not so on the inlands where this action would be met by deadly retribution from the relatives.


Close next to the whites in rank and wealth are the Chinese. The latter is by no means any less important in that they are extremely hard working and entrepreneurial. Their natural cunning, allows them to grasp the most effective resource, and profit from it. Many of these are plantation owners and I have heard the claim that no European has the capability to extract so much benefit from a business than they can.

A large proportion of property in Batavia is also in their ownership. They own many stately rural buildings and extract a significant sum of money by renting them out. Like the Europeans they too have retained their cultural manners and customs. Their dress, is the same as is well known from pictures, a wide rimmed and slightly upturned straw hat that covers the shaved head through which a plait with its interwoven banners and tassels extends right down to their heels.

In their rooms the tea pot as well as the altar are ever present and with its burning light and picture p.124 of an evil deity, to which they offer more than just kind venerations because, they presume that without any doubt, the god will then bring goodwill.

Of their festivals I will only mention the dragon festival which heralds the new year. It


is not merely imitating an event in China, nor, as I had erroneously thought from the illustrations | had seen, just some adventurous dragon creations let off into the air. Instead, they are huge monsters, lit up by numerous lights which are carried through the streets in festive procession and it has more to do with venerating the dead and the obligation to visit their graves and that anyone who neglects this duty will be punished by losing their greatest adornment, the pig tail.

Their dead are encased in multiple coffins where size and weight reflect the social standing of the deceased, which means that the outer coffin may attain a length of 12 to 20 feet. The graves are bricked vaults that are covered with earth and lawn with an opening on one vertical face which is bricked up once the coffin is pushed in.

Theatre and play form the main entertainment of the Chinese. Both are tolerated by the Malayans and permission to hold such plays in public is licensed at the discretion of the government. The license holder is obliged to remunerate its actors.

Performances can be admired by anyone for free and it is with the knowledge that the performances will attract visitors to the gambling tables of the license holder that


make it all worthwhile.

We visited one of these 'Mayangs' several times in part to try Chinese food in one of their food stalls which we rather enjoyed despite not eating it their way - that is, guiding the food to our mouth with sticks. The other part of us wanted to see the theatre and witness the gambling. Of course, we couldn't understand anything of the theatre and had to constrain ourselves and guess the contents of the play which appeared to revolve around a love intrigue.

p.125 The part of ladies was played by men who with their falsetto voice did well to fake their gender. Warriors were portrayed with enormous beards and the number of little flags on their backs signified their rank. The costumes were fantastic and one assured me that they were true in every detail and were in accordance with Chinese laws that prescribe these costume laws.

The music before and during the play was so galling and ear splitting that I withdrew to the gaming tables. This was despite our being in an open venue and that we effectively stood in the open. Proceedings around these tables were fairly peaceful and quiet despite being surrounded by people packed rather tightly


together. At each table there sat a man with his legs crossed and to his side sat two croupiers with heaps of copper coins and bundles of paper guilders lying in front of them. At some of the tables the banker let one of the players fill a tumbler with beans on which bets were placed as to its bean count being an even or odd number. Other tables had a dice with each of its 6 sides bearing a Chinese character which was thrown into a vessel where the base was open and the top locked with a lid. The players then covered the different characters with paper strips onto which the characters of the dice were written and if, after the vessel was removed the symbol of the upper surface of the dice was matched, they received four times the amount they bet.

From their lively participation as well as the significant sums they decide to bet shows that the Chinese are passionate gamblers and it isn't seldom that they squander their entire fortune. That's why European merchants like to employ Chinese cashiers which are obliged to inform on their countrymen that are passionately afflicted with such an indulgence for they will not be given any credit.

The Chinese in Batavia would have their national feelings hurt if one of their countrymen hired himself out as a servant or


even Chinese messengers. Servants, which accompany the English p. 126 when they come here from Singapore are compelled to give up their servile demeanour if they don't wish to be the recipient of adverse retributions.

In Batavia the Malayans represent the serving class. They are the house servants, cooks, coachmen, are the carriers and boatmen and as field and garden workers they earn their generous keep. They are however poor managers so that they seldom make a fortune and often their monthly wage is credited against borrowings for wares from a Chinese merchant. They are treated well by their masters although they seem to change them frequently if only just for changes sake as attested by one gentleman who wanted to know the reason for his leaving his service and heard the open confession that he was tired of seeing his face any longer.

In their manual work men and women are very skilful and from the latter I was shown some embroidery done in colourful silk which was finished with the utmost care and exactitude. As far as their spiritual culture is concerned it looks grim of course in that nothing is done to improve on it but even so, they are receptive to education and have a great sense of understanding. Malayans that have served in a European household for a


while have learnt the language of their masters. They suppress this knowledge however, because they seem to think that it is too unpleasant, for their masters to know that their servant can understand their conversations.

One Malay,' Mariam' whom Mr. Schroeder had taken to Germany and sent him to school there spoke and read the German language very well. He was so thorough with his written work that his master let him administer the book keeping for the importation and distribution of his ware house. He also has a more than average sense of music just like my sons to whom he also showed much affection by giving them two instruments made by him.

A flute made from bamboo and a two-stringed violin with a resonance chamber made from a coconut. He knew how to play both and on the first he played the 'Schleswig Holstein' tune right to the end.


Miriam is incidentally a model of his nation, because even though he had become somewhat estranged from his Malaysian habits, he soon adopted them again on his return, dressed Malayan and had despite his high standard of education' retained the respect of his father, He took the hand of the


woman destined to be his wife, whom by his own confession didn't love, despite having the prettiest face of all the Malayan women I have seen. Respect for the elder is a virtue of the Malayans and can go so far where they help those old people that have no kin to live with them in their 'Kampons'. The day when someone is cared for by an individual family it is celebrated as a special day.

With the exception of a very few enlightened, they are very superstitious which is why the priests have so much power over them and often expect unconditional obedience. Should something of value get stolen in a household, the best way to get it back is to summon the priest and request his help to return the misappropriated goods. With this request, he is somewhat flattered and no doubt motivated in the knowledge of a pending reward. He knows how to intimidate and knows how to return the goods without ever naming the thief.

The danger of disobeying his orders is shown in this example. We noticed a not so old lady with a totally bald head. Our generous hostess who was always ready to satisfy our curiosity asked as to the cause of her lack of hair and the woman explained that she wouldn't acquiesce to the priest's demands, and so all her hair fell out due to some herbs


that she had later found in her pillow. The preparation of poisons is well known to all Malays, so it isn't wise to allow one's prejudices to dictate and seek retributions for unjust treatment or malicious injury, for it might incur their wrath.

Our host told our company of when he had a great desire to cut down a 'Baringa' tree p.128 that was in the way and because of its wide spreading branches cast too much shadow. This was despite the tree being considered as sacred amongst the Malays because a priest was buried beneath it. He was warned in no uncertain terms that his predecessor had cut off just one branch and together with his whole family had all died suddenly.

The costume of the Malays is depending on their means more or less quite rich. The men wear striped leggings under a dress around which a sarong is wrapped that goes down to their knees. The upper body is robed with a jacket onto whose collars and cuffs the women apply decorative embroidery to the collar and cuffs. Under the jacket a vest is attached by silver fasteners at chest level and wrapped around the head is a brightly coloured cloth which tips are tied at the forehead in such a way that small objects such as straw cigars can be kept between them and


so act just like a pocket. A shawl or 'Slebang' (Seblang? is tied around their waist into which the 'Kries' a strongly spined, wide bladed knife that tapers to a point is kept. It is housed in a wooden sheath and can also be used as a hatchet. They hold the 'Kris' in great esteem and seldom part with it.

The women have the longer, down to their feet reaching 'Sarron' over which they wear the wide 'Kabeia' (Kebaya').

The 'Gledang' in which they choose to carry their children goes over the breast and shoulder and is closed by knots on the right-hand side. Their hair, for which care they take great pride is combed flat, tied into a knot and without the use, of a pin fastened to the back of the head. The men walk barefooted as normally do the women although on festive occasions they wear richly embraided slippers.

The facial features (physiognomy) of the men 1 frequently found expressive yet less so with the women who age early because often the girls are married off in their 12th year. Their teeth are generally poor, black and p.129 corroded, as a result of consummately chewing 'Ciri' and 'Betel'. Their black teeth are seen as elegant however, and no Malayan would marry a man with white teeth.


Across our residence there was a Malayan food stall. We visited it one morning and despite it being just across the road, a servant was summoned to carry a huge umbrella over my wife's head. The food of the Malayans is very simple and can be purchased with just a few 'Deut'. (? Does he mean Deutsche Groschen?)

White rice constitutes the main meal and red rice, which is grown on dry paddies is considered more nutritious than the white. It is cooked in baskets over steam and takes the place of bread. Fish and small pieces of skewered meat cooked over coal as well as eggs, baked bananas and fruit make up the rest of the meal which nonetheless is more often limited to just rice and fruit. On our return our attention was averted to the arrival of a Javanese 'Bajadere' (Topeng). The evening before we had discussed the

'Bajaderen' which are hosted by the regents and we should at least get to see a performance by one of these dancers in the open.

A carpet was spread out onto which four men took their place with various musical instruments. The lead person, the dancer was garbed in a most peculiar manner. A helmet like cap, covered her head. This was adorned with a plume of crested hair combed similar


to our 'Kuerassierhelmen' which was enclosed with a silver hoop from which numerous multicoloured pearl strings hung down to her shoulder. Colourful narrow robe-like bands gathered to a metal ring which was used as a belt.

A shawl draped over her shoulder completed the costume. The dance seemed simple enough because of its repetitive nature where gracious movements executed within a small space to the rhythm of the music and was alternated with singing from the female dancer and accompanied by a p.130 male dancer and choir.

The male dancer seemed to be the pantomimic representation of love and all during this the 'Bajadere' had a colourful mask in front of her face which she changed on a number of occasions. At first, she danced on her own for a long while, then the man rose, adorned himself with a fantastic cap and mask and both then danced towards each other but then abruptly moved away again or they danced around each other in circles. In the end there was unification by both using first their right, then their left and finally both hands, touching as they moved around a centre fixed in position.

The music resonated from fiddle, drum and


p.130 metal pans of varying size which were hit with a wooden clapper. The result was not unpleasant and seemed to harmonize well with the singing because 'piano' alternated with 'forte', 'adagio' with 'andante'. The fiddle was similar to the zither or smaller version of our viola. The drum was long, tapering to one side. It was beaten with a clapper on the wider side and with fingers-or the whole hand - on the narrow end. Three small nestled pans gave a beautiful three toned melody.

Another larger pan was suspended on a bamboo rod which was later used to carry the whole apparatus. As before, a group of young and old flocked to join us in the open performance and even mobile refreshment booths popped up until everything was for ready for eye and ear.

1 had noticed that many children smoked and other, younger ones wore bells on their feet.

That way, Mothers can find them by following the sound should they ever crawl too far into the 'Campons'. Whilst the Chinese visit the play, the Malays take great delight in shadow plays which is also best performed in the open from which we could overhear the music often till late in the night.

Only a few give themselves to a third pleasure which they share with the Chinese- that of smoking Opium. The sale of Opium is reserved


for the government p.131 which makes a significant profit despite the street value being rather high. For example, one 'kugel or shot, enough for six pipes, costs one 'Gulden' and yet despite its expense, its use is very high. Instead of a bowl they use an upturned (pipe) stem onto which opening a small opium ball is placed and its vapours inhaled in two to three breaths.

The at first euphoric, but later terribly unnerving feeling is well known. Since however the Malay's heated character combined with the intoxicated effect of the drug can make them very dangerous. This is why the numerous night guards are equipped with a long wooden fork with barbs so that they can handle a drugged person and render him harmless. The same guards also announce the hours at night by hitting a long hollow log with a club. Another safety measure is that as soon as darkness appears, everyone on the street must carry a lit torch.

Such torches are therefore well stocked in every household and are made from dry and finely spliced bamboo sticks which are bound by a ring so that by sliding it up or down it regulates the flame; that is, to baffle it or flare

it up.

The language of the Malays is very melodious and easy to learn. It is spoken by Europeans


and Chinese and the children of the former generally know no other because they have a Malayan nanny or 'Buba' and the little Malays on their property 'Erbe' are their playmates. It was really sad that we couldn't converse with Mr. Schroeder's children and not able to understand the cute remarks little Johanne made. The lack of schools in Batavia as well as the necessity to guard their children from harmful Malayan influences as well as the damaging effects from the staff, compels their parents to send them to Europe at an early stage. From this they often return first as young men and women.

P 132

Steps towards a better institute of education were underway, the director went to Europe to recruit suitably qualified teaching staff otherwise I may have succumbed to the frequent request to stay and work there myself. The time of our stay in Batavia was coming to an end.

During our stay we were deeply touched and surprized by the attention and hospitality bestowed on us daily by our friendly host, his lovely wife and all of their German friends.

Not just that our sons had found a loving reception with Mr Baupel and felt happy in his home.

Mr and Mrs

Schroeder were


unrelenting in their efforts to satisfy our every wish so much so that I felt compelled to ensure my family exercised restraint. No serious accident clouded these happy days.

One fever attack that sought me out was overcome by adhering to a strict diet of

'Arengsugar' with Tamarin juice and a dose of strong 'Chinapills'.

Overall, we were physically strengthened, mentally refreshed through the intimate and sympathetic friendship which we had found here with friends. Uplifted and filled with new hope we looked forward to our day of departure. When it had arrived, we were accompanied by our dear, dear, friends to the canal where we stepped on a boat and after a quick and painful farewell on the evening of

27 July we boarded our ship. We were now separated from our friends but tokens of their love were still with us; and how they ensured that we were well provided for so as to make our sea journey more agreeable. Fruits, baked goods, cases with supplies were all put on board without our knowledge. Even his own armchair was sacrificed by Mr Baupel for our comfort.

Enough reason for us, with thankful hearts, to always remember our dear friends in Batavia.





Journey from Batavia to Bremen. (extracts from my diary)

28 July. Thank God, the first night aboard ship is over. It was not exactly pleasant. The hard bedding, the restricted space, the dimly lit


and dank cabin. The narrow bunks for me and my two sons were hardly adequate for two let alone three persons all gave a poor contrast with Batavia and we didn't feel at all comfortable but it will get better and in a few days we will soon get used to life on board. At 6 the sails were set and we were guided by the captain of the 'Atlas' which belonged to the same shipping company as ours, as well as being crewed by his men, the 'Livonia' left the moorings of Batavia. The exchange of crew for departure of a friendly ship is a civility that the captains on both sides place much value.

With a triple hurray the crew of the 'Atlas' left us which was answered by us in kind.

30, July

We took two days to pass through the Sunda Strait. Malayan boats accompanied us again and the captain purchased 'Pisang' and pineapples in consideration of our increased menagerie by acquiring a pair of monkeys.

Our ship looks like a fruit stall particularly at the rear where bananas, pineapples, pumpkin, and grapefruit were hung. The latter are a thick-skinned orange-like fruit the size of a human head and I am wondering how long it will remain fresh. The ship is heavily laden and its draft is low in the which


means that it sways very little but the waves crash over the sides more often and anyone wishing to be at the front isn't safe due to the constant showers. Small signs of sea sickness are starting to show.



Today we had a day of double celebration.

The captain celebrated his birthday and in his honour the big flag of Bremen was flown. We also celebrated the names day of one of our Batavian friends and remembered him with our warm blessings. I presented some bottles of wine to the sailors in honour of this day which they accepted with much joy because they usually do not receive any alcohol on their journey. The 'Passat' winds have been blowing favourably for the last two days to assist our passage all according to plan and to the captain's annoyance we had already calculated our arrival time to Europe.



Despite the daily routine on board being a bit monotonous, time passed relatively quickly


without being boring.The care of the monkeys, parrots, Rice birds (sic) pidgeons and small Bengali birds takes up a bit of time and besides, there are other forms of entertainment. The boys are making a bird cage out of Spanish Cane which is a portion of our cargo. We are all taking English lessons and take a bath every day so that evening arrives before you realize it. Under the 16th latitude we saw our first Albatross and soon we will be escorted by a winged flock because even the Cape pigeons are making themselves known. A whale circled our ship and presented itself several times in all its majestic glory. A flying fish gave us the pleasure of getting to know him more closely in that he visited us on board. Yesterday we got quite sick after eating the nuts we had brought with us from Batavia and although they are eaten by the Malays in great quantities, it made the boys vomit and I myself felt very unwell until evening.

Friday, 21 August.

We had reached the half way mark a few days ago yet the 'Passat' winds which were meant to have stopped here are continuing, much to our delight so that we are heading forwards fast, the ship travelling at an average speed of


six geographic miles per hour. Our anticipated sighting of Mauritius did not occur, the captain p.135 maintains our course towards the southern point of Madagascar and takes advantage of a current which will bring us to the Cape. On Sunday morning we are surrounded by whales emitting numerous water spouts. One of them, a fellow of 60 feet in length was so close that we could observe him quite comfortably. Only when we were around 30 steps away from him did he raise his gigantic head which then guided him to the depths after which the mighty shovel of a tail raised itself high above the water. Just one of these 'fish' (sic) can bring four to five thousand 'Thaler' as the second helmsman - who had previously been on whaling expeditions, assured us.

After a few cold, wet and rainy days the weather has become a bit more cheerful so that I can be on deck at night. I have a nice spot on top of the mid-deck amongst rice sacks, which have settled a little and it is a spot where I retreat to when the waves make my stay on deck uncomfortable.


When on board, one seldom lets an opportunity go by that can make the daily


hum drum a bit more exciting. That is why we took the opportunity to celebrate our daughter 'J' and the captain's wife in a festive way. At first the birthday girl was woken by her sisters with a 'Charivari' p.135 In his honour the Russian flag was flown and a new evidence of participation of our lovely hosts in Batavia because the first helmsman (first mate) handed over a box that had been given to him. The box contained a few precious presents including a bottle of champagne which promised that we would have the most fantastic party for that day where later on, the constant breeze also picked up favourably as did the mood of the captain who after a long separation from his family also radiated with an inner glow as he thought of his long-awaited reunion. Towards evening the wind rose to such strengths that we only required four sails yet still moved at 9 knots. The atmosphere was filled with electric stuff not only evident by the strong display of p.136 lightning but also by the fantastic glow that emanated from the sea. Not just a few sparks but whole fire balls seemed to surface, and when, as it happened a lot this night, waves came over board it seemed as if thousands of glowing coals were strewn all round. The night was very restless for me. The roll of the ship, the heat of the mid deck prevented me


from sleeping. I got up around midnight and was surprized to find that the favourable winds we had earlier had now died down to almost nothing.

A warm wind from the coast of Africa now streamed towards me. The coast is about 15 miles from our side and the quiet of the night was interrupted by a dull roar. It was the still turbulent ocean behind us that seemed to be rolling and from time to time sent us a load of water because from time to time a huge, house high wave moved closer. An eerie, feeling overcame me which seemed just like a soldier must have when confronted with an invisible enemy whose attack is imminent and is there, standing just in front of him.

In the morning a fish flew into the open kitchen almost landing into the hands of the chef who gladly received him and duly had him prepared for our evening meal. Another strange event took place as we were sitting at the table and caused a bit of commotion. A large turtle, several feet in diameter was swimming towards our ship and the coast of Africa and it looked so odd, because as it paddled with its feet and out of curiosity stuck its neck out of the water to watch us watching it with an ever-growing curiosity.


Friday 6. September.

Since Sunday we've had storm and rain. That wouldn't have been so bad if only the wind was a bit more favourable, but we are on the same spot we were five days ago. Apart from that it is also bitterly cold and despite our menagerie receiving dedicated care, it is reduced every day. Even the mood of our captain is affected by the unfavourable weather which doesn't p.137 help the situation regarding a simmering dispute between him and the second helmsman. One of our pigs will be slaughtered which means we will have fresh meat.

8. September

The wind is favourable although weak. An English schooner is approaching and wants to communicate with us but unfortunately, we have no signal flags on board and so are unable to answer his questions. A little African, in the form of a small land bird is flying by to send us greetings from shore-maybe we will catch him by nightfall. A strange type of sea plant in size similar to a devoured rope, has swum past our ship already on several occasions. After our meal we admired many small sea animals of which there are plenty in the water and we are even


able to catch some to keep in a bottle filled with water. A total calm has now set in and we have the opportunity to observe a vessel close by. After a few speculations as to its destiny, it turned out that it was bound for the south seas because we recognized the cap of a sailor whilst he was looking around. Soon it also raised a flag of the North American free states and greeted us by raising it three times which civility our crew returned. Soon after a boat was lowered - we were supposed to receive visitors - their captain came aboard and was received by ours in his cabin. The boat in which he arrived was totally equipped for whaling with harpoons, spears, a container for fresh water next to a compass holder. The people had already been away from their homes close to three years, had fished the coast of Australia so now with a near full load they are on the homeward stretch. Our guess that the captain wanted provisions from us proved to be wrong because he had only left Mauritius 26 days ago. We dearly wanted to barter a harpoon but were unsuccessful.

Towards evening the captain proceeded to return, nevertheless yelled back to us that his ship didn't respond well to the steering wheel and for us to better distance ourselves.

p.138 The ships tended to drift ever closer and the danger was that they would collide.


Unfortunately, we were in the same situation so there was no other option other than the Americans to man their boats and to tow us away for some distance.

The evening was wonderful with the star-studded sky with a most spectacular glow and the sea, so phosphorescent as I had never seen. It probably had something to do with the huge number of sea creatures I had seen earlier during the day. If we poured a bucket of water into the sea it was as if masses of sparkling diamonds poured out. And with the same fiery brilliance the seas lit up in the wake of our ship. Only much later could we tear ourselves from this wonderful sight.


The wind is favourable, we are at the south west point of Africa. In front of us is the North American ship, 'St Helena' is his next goal which is also our captain's intention, although he is still keeping this a secret. In the afternoon we very clearly saw the Cape of Good Hope with its blue, terraced mountains that rise to the interior of the land and so we greeted the Atlantic Ocean.



The second helmsman had been successful after all in swapping a harpoon from a sailor from the whaler which is useful because in the last few days several fish have been captured with it and consequently we have a plentiful supply. One of the 'animals was a pregnant female with a fully grown young one and we regretted not having any spirits on board so that we could preserve it. The Albatross and Cape Pidgeons have left us and instead flocks of silver grey sea gulls swarm near the ship and a brown Sea Swallow is dancing on the surface of the water and is moving

p.139 so graciously, that we have named her

'Fanny Elsler'. (sic) of the seagulls, the helmsman claims that they are often close to whales because they feed on the animals found on them in large numbers which is why they call them 'whale birds'. Quite possible, at least more whales were noticed today. The most original sight was granted by a herd of 50 to 60 so called

'Butskoepfe', black, about 12-foot-long fish which spout, snort and tumble over each other as they charge towards the ship.


21. September.

We have had no wind for three days. As unpleasant as this may be, especially for those lupatiently that look forward to a close point so on the other hand it is interesting because of the many sightings because not only due to the amount of time we have on our hands but also because they only surface when the waters are very still. We were sitting quietly with a group when all of a sudden, the cry: shark resounded from the foredeck. We rushed on deck and found the helmsman already busy with the fishing rod. A whole school had assembled, we noticed two large and two smaller ones circling the ship but preferred to congregate around the rudder occasionally surfacing so that the dorsal fin protruded and then go down again so that their spotted bodies shone up to us even from a distance of 40 feet.

Now a strong hook that was fastened to a chain and baited with a hefty piece of bacon.

All was lowered and it didn't take long before one of the larger animals had taken the bait.

The jubilant cry of 'bring him' resounded but we celebrated too soon because the hook straightened and the scoundrel escaped.

Nonetheless the others that remained were once again lured to the lowered bait, or perhaps they were guided there repeatedly


by the delightful zebra striped pilots because one often saw them at measured intervals dart to the bait and back to the sharks.

p.140 At last, the second of the larger fellows after we had prematurely pulled the hook, there was success on the fourth attempt when he had taken the bait successfully. This time the hook held its form and we were able to bring our prey on board. Here the careful removal of monkeys and birds from its jaws had already taken place yet it would still inflict a minor misfortune. 'Zamba', the watchful ship's dog, the darling of the crew sprang forward to welcome the new arrival in his usual way when suddenly his brave barking changed to distressed whining.

The monster had caught his tail and only by letting go of the biggest part of the shark, could the poor thing free himself. Whilst one portion of the crew hacked off the shark's tail thereby finishing him off, the other group tried to stop Zamba's blood flow, which was eventually achieved by applying tar, vinegar and a strap, after which the wound was carefully bound and sprinkled with healing ointment. With all this bad luck there was however a blessing.


The shark had creatively bitten off just


enough, that any self-respecting, well-trimmed, docked dog is meant to have. Since it was too late to gut the shark it was shifted to the leeward side but soon the entire ship smelled of him.

No sooner had we returned to our group our arrival was to be short lived and the cry to: come upstairs we have caught a strange creature lured us back on deck. The helmsman was able to pull up a most beautiful, brightly gleaming creature from the sea. He had the shape of a foot-long cylinder 2 inches in diameter and consisted of a white translucent mass. In the vicinity of the rudder, and nowhere else, we saw a larger number of the same but couldn't get hold of a second specimen.

probable, a SAM.

1 an

(0, "'ly fish)

22 September. In the morning the shark was gutted. p.141 The contents of the stomach included apart from some jellyfish many bits of cnidarians.

A two-foot-long scaled fish and one 'Werch' (sic. Perch?) I had asked for the jaws and backbone which I cleaned during the morning and I hurried a bit so that I could build a sort of catcher which in case the winds died down


I could catch some sea animals and so we were able to catch some jellyfish which were kept fresh in a bucket of sea water. At midday we got fried shark, Although the meal looked appetizing it did not taste good and triggered an immediate revulsion, particularly from my wife and daughters. After our meal Johannes suspended a dolphins' head over the side when suddenly a large shark aimed for it. On At our call the whole crew appeared, fishing rod and harpoon prepared and every one was curious if we could defeat this animal. The shark, guided by three pilot fish was closing in on the hastily thrown bait but seemed to have little interest in taking it, and just swam without a least bit of fright in response to the commotion we had created on board. He was almost touching the side of the ship and close to the surface heading towards the bowsprit.

The next morning the rest of the 'dolphin' was hung from there into the water and when a sailor tried to lift the meat out, a shark at that instant shot towards it.

Although the sailor had tried to hit the shark several times with the heavy piece of meat, the shark remained unperturbed and only left the bowsprit when the meat was totally removed, to return to the rudder. Here fishing rod and two harpoons awaited him and it almost seemed as though all preparations


were in vain. For a while he played his distances from short to far around the ship and we nearly gave up hope but suddenly he moved as if he had finally made up his mind quickly towards the bait, turned on his back and devoured it. A swift pull on the rope, and he was caught. Just to make sure, the two harpoons were thrown into his body, a rope tied round him and heaved aboard. The animal had already lost a lot of blood because one of the harpoons had exposed its guts yet even so it thrashed about terribly and we were all astounded at its life force.

Even when the carpenter hacked its tail off it was unwise to approach it without caution.

The shark was ten feet long which therefore measured two feet more than yesterday's.

Because everyone was curious as to the contents of his stomach, it was opened immediately, but we found nothing which made us wonder even more as to why he took so long to take the bait. My daughter 'C' 's attention p.142 was drawn to the unusually formed spleen which she requested.

Upon receipt she placed it into the same bucket I had earlier placed the jelly fish.

Suddenly a plaintive cry arose. She got too close to one of the jelly fish which resulted in her hand being burnt as if by fire. At first no one would seriously believe that she could


suffer such great pain and only until large blisters appeared was there some sympathy, which her tears alone couldn't deliver.

Incidentally, after a few hours the pain had gone.

24. September.

Big washday. Since we will take on fresh water in St. Helena the captain allowed us to use fresh water for our washing and passengers as well as sailors are doing so enthusiastically. I am attempting to wash my and my son's pants in 'ship's manners': that is, to spread them onto the ship's deck and brush them out using soap and water although I can't pride myself on my work delivering a gleaming result. Our clothes have incidentally, due to the various forms of treatment suffered a lot. In Rio de Janero they were pounded with rocks, in Australia corroded away by soda, in Batavia they were smashed on wash tables and the treatment on the ship seems to be no better.



We are all busy with writing. p.143 Maybe we will already reach St. Helena tomorrow, from where it is possible to send a parcel to Batavia via the Cape.

27. September.

Already at eight in the morning we think we can see St. Helena, a bark to our side is also heading there. At last two domes are discernible at some 6 miles distant, ever more of the jagged form of the island becomes discernible as we approach, but only by 5 in the afternoon were we as close as up to a thousand steps. It is unlikely that we can go on land today because the moorings are on the north side of the island so that we still have a fair bit of sailing to do. Rising in front of us are the steep and dark cliffs and foaming surf at its feet. The many large and small caves are home to many seagulls which one can see rushing for nocturnal lodgings.

The individual cliff tops are bare, nowhere a sign of vegetation. On some of the highest we observe signal masts which in earlier times probably signalled the approach of ships. - We have passed the eastern side then turn to the


north side and we can see the moorings of James Town with around 20 ships at anchor.

The peaks and projections of the cliffs are occupied by batteries and fortresses that seemed to be hanging there like swallow's nests. Along the steep cliff faces are zig zag paths linking one station to the other.

Two ravines lead down to the sea and create the only landing place of the island. One of them, despite its recorded battery remains off limits, in the other lies Jamestown, the capital of the island. It is dark before we drop anchor.

In the city as well as the fortress on the western side lights are being turned on. Is the plateau to the right of us Longwood? Did he live there? There where the individual houses are surrounded by low shrubs? In vain we asked and had to wait until the next day.



Yesterday was one of the most interesting days of our lives. Next morning, we rose early. most of the ships had left the wharf to take advantage of the favourable winds to continue their journey. The captain had received the news that the South-sea-traveller that we had met earlier at the cape


was already here a day before us and the captain gives us his friendly greetings. Soon boats arrived from the land led by a ship broker but they waited until the doctor appeared and with him, four Englishmen boarded our ship, one of whom could speak good German.

In particular one older gentleman chatted with us and, as we found out later, was the Norwegian and Swedish consul 'Carrol'. He had been on St Helena for a long time, had seen Napoleon land here and so you can imagine how interesting we found his Nup dea conversation, especially since he told us many new as well as curious extracts of his life. I will mention just one.

Moored to the side of us was the 'Belle Alliance'. "Do you see?" said Mr Carrol - ". that ship was moored there on the day

Napoleon was buried and by curious coincidence, the 'Waterloo' had also arrived that very morning. The sailors of that ship were given permission to go ashore a gesture which was readily accepted and imagine the impression it gave to everyone present. After the coffin was lowered into-the- grave one of Waterloo

the sailors looked down and 'Waterloo' (the sailors wear the name of their ship on their hats) was the last greeting to follow the deceased into his grave". - In the friendliest


of ways Mr Carrol invited us to join him to go ashore which we accepted with thanks. We were ready and so hurried to enter the boat that would take us to the object of our desired wishes.

We landed at the same spot where Napoleon had landed, walked along small steps that went from the foot of the rock into the sea, then along a wider path which was there because they blasted the entire rock base, then towards the city and shortly arrived at a draw bridge, past canons and mortars then finally to the gates of Jamestown.


p.145 The city lies in a narrow depression between two 600 high, fairly steep cliffs that slope out towards the sea but are suddenly cut vertically.

Stepping through the gate we found ourselves in a fairly large and empty square. To the left of the gate was the house of the governor with friendly terraces and slightly raised gardens. In front of us was a lovely church and all around were massive, two storey high houses most of which were painted with oil colours. The square narrows towards the south and terminates with two small streets.

The one to the right leads to the 'Citadelle' and the one on the left leads to the country.


The main fortress is on the edge of the western cliff to which leads a 636 step, straight as a string stair but also a wider roadway with a protective wall on the steep side. Mr. Carrol led us to his friendly home


which we found pleasant and petite with rooms just like we saw in the better homes in Australia. The table was adorned with books, the floor covered with carpets and mats.

Amongst the books were some albums with plants from interesting areas such as America for example or from the Niagara Falls, because our host had a large family including married children in London and New York.

Mr. Carrol tried to show us as much as he could to make our stay at his home as enjoyable as possible. He soon brought some fruits and we were amazed at seeing our German blackberries next to


Gooseberry, American Guava and Chinese Loquat.

Then our host showed us some written extracts by Queen Victoria, Palmerston and that of King Oskar of Sweden. Then at last we prepared for breakfast after only just having requested a carriage for the captain, my wife and daughters to take to Longwood. I preferred to walk with my sons not only because I wanted to experience firsthand the


The main fortress is on the edge of the western cliff to which leads a 636 step, straight as a string stair but also a wider roadway with a protective wall on the steep side. Mr. Carrol led us to his friendly home


which we found pleasant and petite with rooms just like we saw in the better homes in Australia. The table was adorned with books, the floor covered with carpets and mats.

Amongst the books were some albums with plants from interesting areas such as America for example or from the Niagara Falls, because our host had a large family including married children in London and New York.

Mr. Carrol tried to show us as much as he could to make our stay at his home as enjoyable as possible. He soon brought some fruits and we were amazed at seeing our German blackberries next to Cape Gooseberry, American Guava and Chinese Loquat.

Then our host showed us some written extracts by Queen Victoria, Palmerston and that of King Oskar of Sweden. Then at last we prepared for breakfast after only just having requested a carriage for the captain, my wife and daughters to take to Longwood. I preferred to walk with my sons not only because I wanted to experience firsthand the


curiosities the island had to offer, but also to make a saving, because for four people it cost 4f Sterling, to hire a horse 1€ per four hours.

p. 146

After breakfast, which was very

English with all the inherent comforts this nation had to offer, we were on our way. The path led us up along the side of the cliff also had a protective wall. Below us we could see the city which stretched along the valley.

Individual houses such as those for the officers as well as the nearby barracks and despite the limited space, their neat yet extensive courtyards were impressive.

Incidentally every one of the yards was being used (occupied, taken, manned) and the eye delighted in the neat gardens from which individual palms rose to great heights.

Further on the houses were more isolated and surrounded by lush greenery. From the depth below, we could hear the rushing of a creek eventually crashing down a ravine that was several hundred feet deep. Some of the cliff faces were barren others covered with opulent green and in other places the cacti were rampant and mixed in with flowering geraniums. To our side were ice plants, yellow flowering thistles and Aloes which were spreading widely. At last after a steep decline we reached the first narrow plateau having


wound our way along a stepped path that led through eucalypt bushes. Here the region takes on a different character; around me the barren cliff tops, deep ravines, some slopes with Spruce and shrubbery specifically the yellow flowering broom. Between these are the lesser ravines with their green mats, hard woods and picturesque farm houses.

Along the spine of the mountain the paved road continues until it reaches a great canyon beyond which 'Longwood' was meant to be.

After we had walked on for a little distance

there was a path that led upwards and we Handleons

were close to Napoleon's graveside. The canyon dipped from west to east and


widened to resemble a large caldron. In the centre of the decline stood a house surrounded by a garden which we entered, paid someone 3 Shillings and were taken uphill from the house to p.147 a grassed section that was uphill from the house and surrounded by Cypresses, and there it was,

Napoleon's grave.

The tomb, which was enclosed by an iron fence was an open-brick structure with a small thatched roof. We climbed down ten steps and entrusted our inner feelings to the hallowed grounds of the dead in quiet contemplation of the earthly great.




Of course, we were busy trying to take an object with us to remember this extraordinary place. Earth, roses and Cypress twigs even water from the nearby brook were appropriated as tokens of 'Remembrance' and with a little difficulty I eventually succeeded in taking some branches from the two-weeping willows shading the tomb. These two trees are offspring from those originally planted there but removed by the French when they took Napoleon's remains which incidentally was said to still bear his resemblance when disentombed.

We returned having followed the spine of the mountain road to Longwood. We passed several farm houses and looked to our left

p. 147 and right into deep valleys which slopes were either quite barren or had the usual luxuriant grasses from which clusters of trees rose up and which typically surrounded the dazzling-white farm houses.

On the highest points however, one can see little houses for the sentry, who are placed there right around Longwood to guard Napoleon so that he could hardly take a step without their knowledge.

Longwood itself is on the highest plateau of the Island and lies to the southern side which means we had crossed the whole width of the


island. Through an iron gate we arrived on a fairly large field of half a mile in circumference where on the southern slopes were the buildings and immediate surrounds in which Napoleon had lived. In Jamestown we were advised only to look at the new building which was built for him in which however he hadn't lived in because shortly after it was completed he became terminally ill.

p.148 It almost seemed as if they were ashamed of its condition so had tried to prevent us from visiting his old house. This was however more important to us and so we approached it first. After we again received the approval having paid 2 Shillings per

person, we entered the rooms in which the Napoleor

Kaiser of the French had, after six years breathed his last and whereupon his soul left his body.

But how surprized we were. We could not comprehend how the English did not see it right to preserve this tangible reminder of the great man or to retain any form of reverence



here. Such vandalism we did not in the least expect.

Not just that the buildings showed evidence of the deepest neglect where even portions of the roof were missing. The inner rooms too were debased by virtue of their use. In the


room where Napoleon had died for example there was now a shredding machine and I am glad that the French took everything that was closely associated with the deceased such as the flooring on which stood the sick bed and even part of the wall at the head end where he was lying. What was once his bed room being now a horse stable. Everywhere one looked there was dirt and devastation.

The new building, lying closer to the eastern slope, consists of four wings which enclosed an inner courtyard and with its 46 rooms presented enough room for Napoleon and his close entourage. The original biliard room now serves as a chapel and the eastern veranda opens to a beautiful view across green pastures towards the sea. A garden rich with flowers surrounded the lot.

To its side was the building in which General Bertrand lived. It is now occupied by Captain Mason who rents 'Longwood' from the government for 150€ Sterling per year who also profits from the above-mentioned entry fees. A written recommendation to these gentlemen from Mr. Carrol gave us a very friendly reception. We were encouraged to enter, were pampered with refreshments and had p.149 the opportunity to admire a few of the island's rarities.

ver disappor


Soon the captain's oldest daughter appeared, a young beauty, who in the English tradition presented the ladies with beautiful bouquets of flowers, a sign of appreciation and welcome. Captain Mason drew our attention to the holes in the green window blinds adding that they were cut there by Napoleon's own hand so that he could observe all visitors to Longwood without being noticed.

After we had refreshed ourselves we hurried to start our return because our captain wanted to head out to sea before nightfall. I and the boys took the same path back whereas the carriage chose a new route passing some beautiful sights over the Citadel to reach Jamestown from the west. Having arrived in town earlier we saw him coming down the giddy path that led to town.

Incidentally, everyone was delighted by the beautiful landscapes which they saw along this new route especially over one view displaying most luxuriant meadow covered with thousands of blinding white flowering

'Kallas' (sic.)

Our captain's assignments had all been fulfilled whilst we were away. Despite our haste, the friendly request made by our host compelled us to take in a splendid evening meal. Alas however, all his attempts to also


invite the captain and to persuade him to stay a bit longer so that we could all participate in a Ball were in vain. We proceeded to go to the harbour accompanied by Mr. Carrol and an English ship's captain who had come from

'Hottentot Bay' where he had arrived earlier this afternoon. When we had arrived there and waited for the captain, we had the opportunity to view the slave ships which were lying around the shores in large numbers, all demasted (literally, 'entmastet' - decommissioned) and up for sale at scrap prices. Incidentally, there were five hundred negros brought to St. Helena waiting for a ship to take them to the West Indies where they were to work for seven years to earn their freedom.

At last the captain arrived and after fare welling our generous hosts with a most heartfelt thank you, we returned to our ship.

St Helena unites the hot and moderate zones and that is why you can find apart from the tropical plants, bananas, palms, as well as European fruits and tree species, apples, pears, peaches, Spruce, Oaks. In the valleys it is often humid and oppressively hot on the higher areas cold and wet which is why those travelling inland are equipped with umbrella and coat and one has to be very careful because it is common for cold air streams to


suddenly appear which could trigger dangerous colds. The heights are often shrouded in fog and we found the grass in the valleys to be moist. The

Jamestown inhabitants of around 6000 are engaged in trade and fishing. Inland there is stockbreeding and horticulture. Longwood is the only plateau where a bit of agriculture is carried out. All of Europe's vegetables thrive here. We ate very nice potatoes, cabbage, beans, radishes, salad and even tasted butter that is made here. Sheep are bred here more than cattle. I saw many of the former grazing on the slopes of the mountains. It seems that all inhabitants on St Helena are reliant on the ships that arrive here at a rate of over a thousand per year. The cost of living was fairly expensive: 1 pound meat 1 Shilling, one chicken 3 to 4 Shillings, one sack of potatoes 1

§ Sterling, 5 Pound bread 1 sixpence, only fish were cheap and we found them to be very tasty, especially the mackerel.

1 October.

The mackerel, similar to the herring and can be eaten raw (fresh) or corned Corning is an old-fashioned method of preserving fish in


salt brine, and the corned fish doesn't require refrigeration or freezing.


or smoked and dried and is so common in St Helena that one dozen cost 5 cents. The captain has bought a lot of these fish and we ate them with several meals. Yesterday the helmsman complained about severe headaches so that by afternoon he had leeches (brought with us from Batavia) applied which brought him some relief. No one thought however that it could have been caused by consuming mackerel since we all suffered from an unusual heat in our faces.

Today we got these fish for breakfast and this time received its impact in a frighteningly way. My daughters suffered particularly bad.

They complained about strong anxiety, intense heart palpitations, headaches, blood rushed to their head so much so that their eyes, as well as their faces reddened down to their necks. Whilst a very strong dry heat could be felt on their head, their hands and feet were cold whilst a feverish chill went through their bodies. Only one had to vomit whilst with others, it had a laxative effect.

Although I too had suffered comparable effects, I made myself extremely busy on mid deck vowing not to eat any more of those smoked fish if they were presented on the


table. This time I had the opportunity to observe for myself the effects not dissimilar to what those above me were suffering which symptoms were also repeated on others, even though they ate much, much less. Only the first helmsman had to pay for his scepticism, because that night I met him on deck where he was suffering a lot. One of the sailors that had been to St. Helena many times remembered similar phenomena which were attributed to the consumption of these fish. The same sailor also said that amongst the sailors there is a legend that tells of a whole ship's crew being killed after consuming dolphins purchased at St. Helena.

They attribute this to the copper rich soils of the island.

5. October

Early at 5. I was woken by the helmsman;

Ascension Island was lying to our side. She seems to be the same size as St. Helena but doesn't rise as steeply from the waters although it appears to surpass the height of Helena. We are so close that with our naked eye we can distinguish the fort and other buildings as well as a small vessel on the coast. Numerous swarms of birds are flying from here heading towards the sea. We could


see the island all day because we were making slow progress.

P. 152

6. October.

A cute jelly fish was pulled up in the bath water. She is about 2 inches long and consists of a1/4-inch-thick tube made of a transparent, whitish substance with a beautifully blue-striped patterned mass, on which one can clearly discern mouth and anus. In the inner, one notices a dark brown spot, the stomach, to which the intestinal canals are leading to. The animal is happily swimming around in a glass, then lower, then more towards the surface depending if it contracts or expands.

Today the glow of the sea was once again magnificent although this phenomenon appeared under the most diverse circumstances. Soon there are thousands of little sparks which spray to all sided with water's movement, soon they appear to be fire balls which emit their bright shiny glows.

Soon one can clearly see the animals emitting


the shine, like a fire storm floating around yet soon as if sheets of lightning are piercing (searing) through the sea. This latter show appeared again this evening.

7. October.

Never before have I seen so many flying fish as today.

Whilst they normally occur in low numbers, at the most several hundred, to simultaneously launch themselves out of the water. Today, they covered the entire ocean as far as the eye could see with swarm after swarm, counting many thousands and either frightened by the whooshing of our ship or chased by a predatory these fish rose up from the sea for a while only to dive back in again.

Only individuals, perhaps stronger than the rest, took a longer path in that from time to time they gained extra strength by skimming the water as if to gain extra strength and so continue their flight. Jokingly we regretted that no part of the procession was heading for the ship for we would have had an excellent meal because the meat from these fish is particularly tender and tasty.

p.153Midday 12 noon we passed the 6-degree southern longitude of the sun's axis so


that from now on at noon we have the sun to the south.


We are crossing the line at 12.30 and are once again in the northern hemisphere. Since this is the region that most ships cross the line, we see them pass to our left and right on a daily basis just like the English full-rigged-ship. with its full sails is a magnificent sight.

13. October.

My brother's birthday gave rise to a small family celebration. At night I awoke my wife and children to admire the magnificent glow of the sea. As far as the eye could see every wave was glowing as if by a fiery comb and with every movement the dark sea waves spray thousands upon thousands of shiny gold sparks, a sight not possible to reproduce with a brush and hard to describe in words to those who have never seen anything like it.

18. October.

For three days we had calm weather. Her usual companions 'discontent', 'displeasure'


and 'moroseness', establishes themselves and materializes in a number of ways. Throughout these days there was extraordinary suffering from the heat. Strong rain showers bring relief. In the afternoon we noticed a flock of birds similar to the crows at home screeching loudly as they flew back and forth over one spot over the water. They seemed to be fishing, because the little fish jumping out from the water became their prey and after they followed the path of the school 's trajectory for some distance, the same scene is repeated.

24. October.

A small, 2.5-foot-long sword fish is caught by the helmsman and with him there were also two small shark suckers which had fastened themselves so well that they were hard to prize away. Johannes has kept them in alcohol. A large shark as well as a few dolphins are occasionally showing up. I'm sitting in wait in the heat of the sun for two hours with the Elger' the so-called five-pronged harpoon without avail.

Sadly, we have still not moved from our spot, the desired trade p.154 winds are nowhere to be found and instead showers and total calm take it in turn and the frailty of our lightly


built harmony on board is in danger of total collapse.


the to


lick owing

During the night the senior helmsman had me - motion

woken to look at an unusual apparition of the moon. We quickly rushed to deck and from what I could see, getting out of bed was well worth it. The moon was waning and in its second quarter was covered as if by a thin veil which however only covered its outline and allowed the full glow to shine through unimpeded.

The circular light disc was bound by a glowing rainbow wreath that shone in a most beautiful display which thereon changed to a smaller circle of the dark blue sky which was then encircled by a larger circle that emitted white light. This phenomenon lasted only about 5 minutes and was repeated twice. Two cute land birds had settled on board and have been with us for several days now. We caught one and the other was probably eaten by rats that are getting more brazen by the day. I Rarithed heard how the cook, an old seafarer claimed that the birds must be killed because they were bewitched and as long as they lived we


couldn't get good winds. Coincidentally the winds really did return after their death.

20. (sic. 30?) October.

Yesterday two ships passed us, two again today of which the smaller one, an American schooner amused us a lot. The ship was light and delicately built and appeared to pitch and toss playfully along the waves as it moved in rapid procession. It came pretty close and the captain showed us its length which we answered in kind by holding up a seat with 31 ft. 6 written upon it. He hoisted the American flag low on the mast whereby we held up our own, unfurling it in our hands because it would have taken too long to hoist it properly.


Yesterday at noon we passed the Tropic of Cancer.

Today is Reformation day in Berlin p.155 and I wish I could be back in the company of my colleagues. On ship there is a lot of painting going on. Everywhere there is that smelly oil paint because the ship is to make a good impression when it returns to harbour. Great masses of sea weed are


drifting with the current towards south west.

We fished some out and found them covered with small crabs.

8. November.

Early in the morning a magnificent thunderstorm was approaching which pulled us forward to R.D. The wind gained strength and at 6 pm a second storm was gathering from the south-west. We had to fold the sails and only used the foresail (Fock) and half topsail (Marssegel). Soon rain poured down, perhaps to save us from the electrical storm passing over us in the process of sporadically unloading itself, heaven and sea presented an eerie picture.

Whilst the yellow light of the former became progressively darkened by the approaching clouds, the latter foamed as the storm carved deep furrows and seemed intent on burying the ship underneath its mountainous waves.

Anything that wasn't riveted or nailed down tended to move about as the ship swayed and only with great effort could my wife and I hold


on to the ropes to remain upright.


My last pipe of Dutch (Canasters) tobacco has gone up in smoke, but the captain has promised me his support so that I won't be completely lacking. We must acknowledge and be thankful for the attentiveness shown by the captain to all, especially his care for our well-being.

14. November.

Early at 5 am on deck and I'm heartened by the news that land is in sight. Certainly the N.E. winds have taken us so far to the west that we have come very close to the western islands of the Azores. At the onset of day, the outline of two of its islands are clear to see.

The one closest to us is 'Corvo', a bit further off is 'Flores' and we pass the first very closely. The E, and N. sides appear steep and sloping and only at the higher levels can we see green areas and from time to time with favourable sunlight we can see several tree




A ship in the N.E.raises its flag, a bit too late for us to see because it is a brig from Bremen.

We show our number 238 towards it but unfortunately no one on board can see it.

15 Now Missin

19. November.

For two days a N.W. wind that can almost be called a 'storm' batters us. The ship is working terribly hard and is swamped by waves so that even the cabin isn't spared even though the

'Skylight' (the upper part where the light comes through) had been tightly covered with sailcloth and boards. Four sea sails and


'Reuil' are torn to shreds.


21. November.

The wind is blowing s.W. It is idle yet misty and rain penetrates the tightest fabric. The sailors are all complaining about insufficient food but the captain remains cool and composed at their sometimes-crude remarks.

Incidentally they are not suffering since there is still enough meat and we have rice as cargo.

The length of the voyage has however diminished our food to some extent due to the storms and waves having caused a bit of damage amongst the chickens so that there are only four left alive.

One can sense the tension, the type that feeds on apparitions such as those formed by cold and foggy weather and one that creates a united fear amongst the sailors who are adamant that our end is near. This is despite our p.157 proximity to the coasts of France and Ireland both of which are slowly being


exposed and stretch widely into the sea.

Despite being quite a long way from shore the depth sounding is already registering. Land in Ireland is apparently red and black in France and from this the seafarers are able to gauge which coast they are approaching.


The night was bright and a magnificent sunshrise refreshed us (sic). From all sides of the 'Channel ships were appearing or going into it. We are 8-degrees longitude and 491/4 latitude. In the afternoon a sudden gust broke the topmast studdingsail boom, like a tree trunk 1 foot in diameter snapped right in the middle. Towards evening the wind came from the S.W. and rose to a storm in the evening.

At the same time the S.W. brought so much wetness that we saw nothing of the coast but entered the Channel during the night without the help of the 'fires' on the English coast.

24. November.

The storm is holding on and getting stronger.

Everything is shut tight yet despite this a huge wave came crashing down the steps of our


cabin. Since despite the crashing waves we stayed on deck to admire the storm's damage done to our dishevelled ship. My daughter who felt unwell remained down in the cabin on her own when as the result of a large wave the heavy box containing sea charts was flung on top of her and we found the poor thing sitting on the sofa with a bloodied cheek and badly swollen eye, with the box lying on the floor. The sails are reefed more tightly and we move with just the topsail, and yet despite all this we feel obliged to heave twice more without which there is hardly a chance to progress, but so it goes. In the evening at 6 we see the lights of 'Start Point', the spit of Plymouth.


25. November.

Land in sight. The Isle of Wight is in front of us the wind has dropped its ferocity but is still strong enough that we sail under reefed sails.

Johannes has thanks to a crashing wave exercised some swimming lessons and was duly thrown to the floor. The English coast is visible and constantly on our side. We sail around Beachy Head and increase the sails.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Looking towards the cliffs and lighthouse from


the west near Birling Gap.

p.158 Evening at 7am we see Hastings which brings back lively memories of our outward journey, then at around 11 am Dungeness (Dunginess sic.) around 2 am Dover (Dower sic.) and the fire on the French coast.

26. (16 sic) November.

We are in the North Sea. The storm seems to have caused a lot of damage here because apart from one boat there are ship's planks bobbing on the waves. Numerous ships are coming towards us including the Bremer full-ship 'Agnes Nr 144' with emigrants bound for America and whose captain is asked by ours if the Weser estuary is free. Several steam ships are heading towards the English coast.

28. November.

The weather is' cheerful but bitterly cold and we foster concerns about the Weser freezing


over because then we would have to go to an English harbour which is causing us much grief and expense. We are still cruising on the

'Braunen Bank' or 'brown shore line' the stacking place of numerous fishing boats over 100 in number of which year in and year out fish are taken from time to time because they are not individually owned, but instead are waged by either private individuals or owned by companies.

3. December.

For three days foggy weather. We look out for the pilot without success, even our fires at night don't attract anyone. Amongst our animals, death has taken a shattering toll and they succumb to the rough weather despite our care.


Yesterday we were twice in great danger. We were sitting at the table when suddenly the ship's bell was rung. In the thick fog a passing ship came so close that only by the greatest of efforts was a collision prevented.

The other danger was even bigger. After 15


'flags' the sailor read 8 'flags', we were heading for the shore, and we had to turn suddenly so as not to run aground.


During the night we kept our distance from the shore, around midday the sun shone, we could see Helgoland which sight evokes much happiness in all. The captain doesn't know what good news to tell us and it is touching to see his efforts to instil in us some sort of token of appreciation. It would without a doubt be cherished with gratitude.

In the distance we can see a steamboat heading towards us. What a pleasant surprize.

The German flag is waving towards us which in turn is greeted with delight. It is the battle steamer 'Ernst-August', sent off in order to enquire about the frigate 'Session' which is expected in Bremerhaven. We are indebted to a pilot for the captain's friendliness (sic).

8. December.


Although we had already reached the buoys that mark the mouth of the Weser two days ago, not even the pilot was game enough to advance any further forward in this thick fog.

Today the weather is nice. At last the shore lines are clearly discernible, friendly church villages lie to our side, over there the forest of masts announces the harbour of Bremen, the steam boat 'Neptun'.

The proclamation of the arrival of the

'Washington' is overheard. At 2 pm in the afternoon our anchors drop. I thank you god, you have brought me and my family safely back home.


South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA: 1839 - 1900 Mon 29 April

1850 Page 2 Shipping Intelligence.

Saturday, April 27 1850

The barque Livonia, 400 tons, Hunteman, master, for Batavia. Passengers- Gust. Listeman, wife and four children, Charles Maar, and Frederick Haage.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia accessed 28/1/18

Heinrich "Henry" Noltenius (11 August 1820 - 10 January 1884) was a German settler in the British colony of South Australia, and a prominent wine and spirit merchant.



Noltenius was born in Bremen, and arrived in South Australia in September 1843 aboard Madras from London.

In 1848 he joined the firm of Joseph Stilling & Co., then in June 185911 left and founded Noltenius and Co., wine and spirit merchants of 75 King William Street.

Was he involved with brother B. A. Noltenius in Noltenius, Meyer & Co.

(founded c. 1848)?

Noltenius purchased the Halifax Street brewery from W. H. Clark in February 1858, and five months later took on W. K. Simms as a partner, then sold him his share of the business. Both Clark and Noltenius were in debt to the bank.

Clark left South Australia for the eastern colonies, out of reach of South Australia's laws, but Noltenius remained.

Noltenius & Co. dissolved around 1882 and he worked as a traveller for W. B.

Rounsevell & Co, but his health was failing, and he died two years later.]

Henry Noltenius (c. 1820 - 10 January 1884) married Emma Eliza

Payne (2 September 1836 - 5 March 1875) on 1 July 1852. She was the eldest daughter of Samuel Payne of Payneham. They had a home in Bridge Street, Kensington. Their family included:

  • Edward Arthur Noltenius (27 March 1853 - 1934) married Martha
  • Marie "Pattie" Hutson (- 27 March 1929) on 21 May 1878, died at Murray Bridge.[2] Both were buried at Victor Harbor.
  • Rev. Harry Edward Noltenius (1879 -) married Alice "Waissie" Hosier of Clare on 1902. He retired to Woodend, Victoria.[31
  • (Arthur) Roy Noltenius (1883 - 3 July 1966) married Edith Margaret
    Dibben (c. 1989 - 7 December 1976) of Pinnaroo on 16 July 1913.
    Archdeacon Bussell was assisted by Revs. A. E. Dibben and Harry

E. Noltenius !, lived at Murray Bridge.

Johannes Lebrecht Noltenius (c. 1831 - 9 September 1884) was tobacconist at Beechworth, Victoria around 1858. He managed mines at Montacute and the Barossa Valley. From around 1873 he managed a copper mine at Yam Creek in the Northern Territory, where he died of spear wounds inflicted by Aborigines. A party sent to arrest the culprits and recover stolen property took it on themselves to conduct a reprisal, killing around five Aborigines.IS "The Alleged Slaughter of Blacks in the Northern Territory" Evening Journal (Adelaide). XVIII, (5207). South


Australia. 12 February 1886. p. 3. Retrieved 27 October 2017 - via

National Library of Australia.