James M. Edmunds (August 23, 1810 – December 14, 1879) was a Whig politician from Ypsilanti. Edmunds served in the Michigan State Senate from 1840-1841, the Michigan House of Respresentatives from 1846-1847, and was a Whig candidate for Governor in 1847. In 1844, Edmunds was one of the founders of the first Ypsilanti Sentinel, a newspaper dedicated to supporting Henry Clay's presidential campaign.

Edmunds was born in Niagara County, New York, received a common school and academic education and taught school from 1826-31. Upon moving to Ypsilanti in 1831, he became a merchant. He took an interest in the schools there and for ten years was an inspector of schools, also holding a number of other local positions.

In 1853 he moved to Detroit, engaged in the lumber business, extending his operations to Saginaw and Tuscola counties. In 1854, he became a Republican and chaired the Michigan Republican Party from 1855-1861. He was also Comptroller of Detroit during most of those years from 1857-1861. In 1859 he was appointed postmaster of Washington, D.C., and held that position until his death.

In 1861, Edmunds resigned as comptroller when he was appointed by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, commissioner of the General Land Office of Washington, and held it until 1866, when he became postmaster of the Senate which he resigned in 1869. He was also president of the Michigan Soldiers’ Relief Association in Washington, D.C. from its organization in 1861. He was also president of the National Council of the Union League from 1862-1869 and for a number of years published The Republic, a Washington magazine.