On August 25th, 1899, Police Officer Pardee engaged in excessive use of force against J.J. Fitzgerald while arresting him. Judge Ogden awarded the victim $300 but they settled for $150. Mayor Snow paid the fee "out of the urgent necessity fund as he says that he believes such a course to be necessary to preserve the standing of the police force." This is one of the earliest documented incidents of police misconduct in Oakland.1



  1. "Snow Will Pay Pardee's Judgement." The San Francisco Call: Aug 26, 1899.