On August 25th, 1899, Police Officer Pardee engaged in excessive use of force against J.J. Fitzgerald while arresting him. Judge Ogden awarded the victim $300 but they settled for $150. Mayor Snow paid the fee "out of the urgent necessity fund as he says that he believes such a course to be necessary to preserve the standing of the police force." This is one of the earliest documented incidents of police misconduct in Oakland.1
- "Snow Will Pay Pardee's Judgement." The San Francisco Call: Aug 26, 1899.